BREEDS

Source:  BREEDS    Tag:  dwarfism life expectancy
                                                     AIREDALE TERRIER
Airedale terrier are the largest breed in the terrier family. They have a bristly, wiry top coat that is tan with black or dark grey markings and a soft undercoat. The legs, belly, sides, head and ears should all be tan, though a small white patch on the chest is allowed, as are dark markings on either side of the head. Airedales have a back where the shoulders are even with the hips, called a ‘level topline’, their tails are usually docked, though with new standards being introduced in the UK and Europe, undocked tails are acceptable so long as they do not curl over the back. The front legs must be straight and whole body should appear square. Size: Dogs – Height: 22-24 inches/Weight: 50-65 pounds Bitches – Height: 22-23 inches/Weight: 40-45 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues: Overall a healthy breed of dog, though hip dysplasia is occasionally a problem. Eye diseases are also seen in the breed as well as dry skin being an issue. Life Expectancy: 10-12 years is the average life expectancy for this breed. Grooming Requirements: As Airedales have a short, wiry topcoat and a soft undercoat, they need to be groomed often. Regular brushing, weekly if not daily, is needed to keep shedding to a minimum. Stripping of the coat is also recommended for the Airedale to keep their skin in top condition.


 
ALASKAN MALMUTE
are large and strong, and as they originate in the cold climate of the Arctic , they have a very thick double coat. This coat can be black and white, red, white, or they can be ‘wolf’ marked in grey or sable. This means the dogs have the markings of a grey wolf, or have a reddish undercoat covered by a grey topcoat. Malamutes have furry feet and tough foot pads to protect them from the ice and snow. The eyes must be of a dark colour as blue eyes are a fault that will disqualify dogs from being shown, and their tails must be carried curled over the back.
Size:Dogs – Height: 24-26 inches/Weight: 80-95 pounds
Bitches – Height: 22-24 inches/Weight: 70-85 pounds
Breed Specific Health Issues:
There are few health problems associated with the ALASKAN MALMUTE.Hip Dysplasia is occasionally seen, though this is common with many larger dogs. Some dogs carry the gene for chondrodysplasia, or dwarfism, so you must be sure a puppy’s parents have been tested prior to purchase.
Life Expectancy:
The average life expectancy for the Alaskan Malamute is 12-15 years.
Grooming Requirements:Due to the heavy coat this breed has, a lot of grooming is required. It should be brushed at least three times a week, and more frequently during their moult which happens twice a year. During this time the dogs’ coat will be shed in large clumps and it is most beneficial if you help the dog lose his coat faster by brushing it out. There is no need to give Malamutes a bath, though, as their coat naturally rids itself of dirt naturally.

                                                        BASSET HOUND
basset hound has a short, shiny coat, and while there are no specifications on coloration, they usually have a white base with reddish-colored markings and or red and black markings on white, and occasionally lemon and white. The skin of the Basset Hound is loose and hangs in folds behind the head. They have long ears that will meet past the end of the nose if pulled forward, sad-looking eyes and lips that hang down past the lower jaw. The Basset Hound also has a very deep chest that extends past his front legs, and a pronounced dewlap. Size:Dogs – Height: 12-15 inches/Weight: 50-65 poundsBitches – Height: 11-14 inches/Weight: 45-60 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues:The only problems usually associated with Basset Hounds are the strain on their legs and back because of their very long body and very short legs. These problems can be kept to a minimum if a proper diet is fed – allowing a Basset Hound to become overweight will put unnecessary strain on their bodies. Life Expectancy:Basset Hounds average life span is around 10 to 12 years. Grooming Requirements:The Basset Hound’s coat is very easy to care for, needing only the occasional, once weekly, grooming with a stiff brush. basset do shed year-round, but not as heavily as other breeds. Also, due to the long-hanging ears, cleaning inside the ears is very important to keep them clean.

                                                          BEAGLES

beagles are compact, square dogs with a short, sleek coat. There are no disqualifying colors for the Beagle, though they tend to be white with patches of red, black, or lemon. Beagles have broad, slightly rounded heads, with a straight muzzle that ends in a black nose with large nostrils. The tail must not curl over the back. Beagles are very well-known for their bark, which sounds like a cross between a bray and a howl. Size:Dogs – Height: 14-16 inches/Weight: 22-25 poundsBitches – Height: 13-15 inches/Weight: 20-23 poundsThere are two height classes for Beagles. The first class is for dogs between 13-16 inches, and the second is for dogs under 13 inches. Breed Specific Health Issues:Some dogs can have heart disease, back problems, eye disease, and epilepsy in their lines, so a full health test should have been performed on the parents of any puppy you are considering. Chondroplasia, dwarfism, can also be found in beagle resulting in warped front legs. Life Expectancy:The life expectancy for the Beagle is between 12 and 15 years. Grooming Requirements:As the Beagle has a short, glossy coat, very little grooming is required. Brush with a stiff brush once a week. Bathing the Beagle should only be done when necessary, and the ears should be cleaned monthly.

                                                      BORDER COLLIE
The body of the border collie is slightly longer than it is tall, and has a long tail that should never be carried over the dog’s back. There are two coat varieties that are permissible for the Border Collie. One type, the ‘coarse’ type, has longer, straight hair of about 3 inches long, while the ‘sleek’ type of coat is about 1 inch long. While white should never be the main color of the coat, it is very often seen paired with black, red, and a combination of the three, or tri-colored. Border Collies can also be black and grey, or solid black. The nose should be black, and all colors, except Merles, must have dark eyes. Merles can have one or both blue eyes. Size: Dogs – Height: 19-22 inches/Weight: 30-45 poundsBitches – Height: 18-21 inches/Weight: 27-42 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues: Although generally a resilient dog, some in the breed may experience Hip Dysplasia, and a Collie-specific eye disease called Collie Eye Anomaly. Many are also allergic to fleas and great care should be taken to keep these dogs flea-free. Life Expectancy: 12-15 years is the average life expectancy for the Border Collie. Grooming Requirements: Border Collies need regular, at least weekly, brushing or combing to keep its coat from getting tangled or matted. This breed does not require regular bathing, though it should be checked often for fleas and ticks, especially if it is a working dog.

   
COCKER SPANIEL
is a medium-sized dog with a beautiful silky coat. There are many coat color variations of the Cocker Spaniel which are: Black; ASCOB (Any Solid Color Other than Black) which can range from very light blonde to deep red; Parti-Color – any two or more solid colors, one of which must be white; and Tan Points – black or ASCOB with tan points in specific locations. Please check with the Kennel Club for specifics on tan point locations.The Cocker has a round head with a square muzzle which has upper lips completely covering the lower jaw. The nose of the black.cocker spaniel must always be black, though may be brown on other color variations. The body should be solid and the topline should slope slightly from front to back. Although the tail is normally docked in the USA , dogs that are to be shown internationally must conform to new standards on tail docking. Size: Dogs – Height: 15 inches/Weight: 15-30 poundsBitches – Height: 14 inches/Weight: 15-30 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues: The biggest health problems associated with Cockers are eye diseases such as glaucoma and cataracts, although patellar luxation (when the knee slips out of place) is common as well. Problems occasionally seen include Hip Dysplasia, liver disease, and skin allergies. Life Expectancy: The average life expectancy for the Cocker Spaniel is 12 to 15 years.

Grooming Requirements:The amount of grooming required depends on the length you choose to leave the dog’s coat. Some owners, and especially those who show their dogs, choose to leave the coat long which requires almost daily brushing and bi-weekly bathing. A long coat also requires trimming and clipping occasionally.A more functional way of keeping the coat is trimmed much shorter, although this requires occasional brushing and updated clipping as well.

 
DASCHUNDS

have very short legs and very long bodies. There are two sizes of Daschund that are recognized by Kennel Clubs (see Size), and three coat variations: short-haired, long-haired, and wire-haired. There are also a variety of recognized color variations: Solid Daschunds are either red or cream; Bi-colored dogs can be grey, black, or brown with spots of copper above their eyes and other specified locations (see Kennel Club specifications); Dappled, or Merle, dogs have a lighter shade of the same color dappled over their body. For example, a dark shade of grey base with light grey pattern. For wire-haired dogs, the “Wild Boar” color is most common, making the dog look slightly grizzled. The Daschund has a long head with a long muzzle, ears that hang down to the cheeks, and dark, oval eyes.
Size:Standard-Height: 14-18 inches/Weight: 16-32 poundsMiniature-Height: Under 14 inches/Weight: Under 11 pounds
Breed Specific Health Issues: DASCHUNDS are predisposed to spinal difficulties dealing mainly with the discs. Serious cases are referred to as Daschund Paralysis. Because Daschunds can easily become overweight, they are also prone to diabetes and heart trouble. Being overweight is a serious issue for these dogs as the extra weight puts added stress on the back.
Life Expectancy:The average Daschund will live between 12 and 15 years.
Grooming Requirements:Long-haired Daschunds require the most grooming, needing weekly, if not more frequent, brushing. Short-haired Daschunds need only the occasional rub with a damp cloth to remove any loose hair and dirt, and wire-haired dos’ coats require stripping twice a year.

 
DOBERMAN PINSCHER

is a very muscular and powerful dog which has a hard, short coat that can be black, red, blue, or fawn with copper points (see Kennel Club for specifics). While white Dobermans are being bred, they are still not recognized by most kennel clubs. The Doberman has a short back and a muscular neck leading to a head that bears a resemblance to a blunt wedge. The eyes should be dark with an intelligent expression. Although in the past ears were cropped and tails docked, if dogs are hoping to compete internationally the owner should check current specifications on these details. Size:Dogs – Height: 26-28 inches/Weight: 66-68 poundsBitches – Height: 24-26 inches/Weight: 66-68 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues:Although this breed is generally healthy, Hip Dysplasia and heart disease must be looked out for. Life Expectancy:The lifespan of the Doberman Pinscher is 12-15 years on average. Grooming Requirements:As the doberman has a short, hard coat, not much grooming is required, although wiping their coat with a damp cloth to remove dirt and excess hair is recommended. 

                                                  GERMAN SHEPHERD
should have a head that is in proportion to its body, which is muscular and elongated. The German Shepherd has a medium-length double coat with a very dense outer layer. These dogs must have a black nose or will be disqualified from showing, and although puppy’s ears will flop over, adults’ ears must be erect and point forward.While most coat colors are permissible in the show ring, sharp colors are most desired – and blue and liver colors are serious faults in the ring – white German Shepherds would be disqualified as they are not a recognized color of most kennel clubs. Size:Dogs – Height: 24-26 inches/Weight: 78-85 poundsBitches – Height: 22-24 inches/Weight: 78-85 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues:Hip and Elbow Dysplasia is very common in German Shepherds, so be sure both parents have been tested before purchasing a puppy. Epilepsy, blood disorders, and eczema are also often found in this breed. Life Expectancy: has an average life expectancy of 12-15 years. Grooming Requirements:As German Shepherds shed hair year-round, it is important to brush them at least every other day to remove excess and keep the hair around the house to a minimum. German Shepherds will also shed heavily twice a year, during which time they should be groomed daily to help them lose their coat. German Shepherds should not be bathed often as this removes important oils from their skin.

                                                      GREAT DANE
GREAT DANE has a long, slim head atop a long, muscular neck. The front legs of the Great Dane are straight, and he has round, compact feet for the size of his body. This breed has a short, close-fitting coat that comes in a variety of colors. These colors include brindle, fawn, blue, black, harlequin, and mantle and the nose of these dogs should be black, except in blue Danes where the nose can be dark blue-black, and in the harlequin where a black-spotted nose is acceptable.Although ears are often cropped in the USA , care should be taken if showing dogs internationally as cropped ears are an automatic disqualification under some circumstances in some countries. Size:Dogs – Height: 32-34 inches/Weight: 130-200 poundsBitches – Height: 30-32 inches/Weight 110-150 poundsThese are average weights for this breed as it can vary a lot between individual dogs. Breed Specific Health Issues:Hip Dysplasia is the most common health problem with this breed, so be sure to purchase your puppy from a breeder whose stock have good test scores. Other problems that occur are heart disease, and are prone to bloat. As this breed takes a long time to mature, avoid any serious exercise until over one year old. Life Expectancy:The Great Dane is not a long-lived breed, averaging around 10 years, though some do live longer. Grooming Requirements:Because of their short coat, little grooming is required. Weekly grooming with a stiff brush is recommended. Some Danes love the water so baths can be fun, but many do not which makes it very difficult – weekly brushing helps eliminate the need for bathing.


                                                 LABRADOR RETRIEVER

The Labrador Retriever has a broad head, wide muzzle, pendant ears, and brown eyes with an intelligent expression. Labradors have muscular bodies and straight front legs. They have short, thick, double coats that are water resistant. Labradors also have webbed toes which help it while swimming. This breed has three coat colors: black, yellow, and chocolate.   Size:Dogs – Height: 22-24 inches/Weight: 65-75 poundsBitches – Height: 21-23 inches/Weight: 60-70 pounds  Breed Specific Health Issues:The major problems associated with Labrador Retrievers are Hip Dysplasia, Progressive Retinal Atrophy, and other eye diseases.  Life Expectancy:10-12 years is the average life expectancy for the Labrador Retriever.  Grooming Requirements:The Labrador ’s coat is very easy to maintain, needing only the occasional brushing with a stiff brush.
                                                         MALTESE
The Maltese is a small dog with long, silky white fur. The coat should be straight with no wave or curl, and it should skim the ground when the dog walks; the coat should fall over the body on either side of a center part down the dog’s back. The tail is carried over the back and is covered by long hair, making the tail look like a small bump on the dog’s rear. The Maltese also has pendant ears which are covered by the same long, white fur. The head of the Maltese should be made up of 1/3 muzzle which slightly tapers into a black nose with large nostrils. This breed should have very dark eyes with black rims around the eyes. 
Size:Dogs – Height: 8-10 inches/Weight: 6-9 poundsBitches – Height: 8-10 inches/Weight: 6-9 pounds 
Breed Specific Health Issues:Maltese dogs must be kept dry and not allowed to get damp against their skin to avoid problems such as respiratory infections and skin problems. You must also be careful when taking your Maltese out on sunny days as they can get sunburned along the part on their back. This breed can also suffer from eye and tooth problems. 
Life Expectancy:The Maltese life expectancy is around 12-15 years. 
Grooming Requirements:Due to the long, silky coat of this breed, daily grooming is absolutely necessary. Bathing regularly is recommended to keep the coat from getting stained, as is cleaning around the eyes daily and around the mouth after every meal for the same reason. After bathing, be sure the dog is completely dry to avoid complications.Many pet owners choose to clip the hair of their Maltese’s short to make grooming easier. In this case, only occasional brushing is needed, although cleaning around the eyes and mouth frequently is still required – as are frequent trips to the dog groomer for a haircut.


                                                          POODLE

Although there are three official sizes of Poodle, the breed standards are the same for all three. These dogs have a long head and muzzle with a liver-colored nose acceptable for brown dogs, while black is needed for all other colors. The eyes should be dark, either amber or brown. The poodle should be as long as it is tall at the withers with straight, parallel front legs. The tail is normally docked to ½ its original length, though if being shown internationally, kennel club standards must be checked prior to docking.There are three accepted types of cut for the poodle, the ‘Continental Clip’ which is the most well-known cut for a poodle – the rear half of the dog is shaved, rings of fur are left around the ankles, and puffs of fur are left on the hips and end of the tail; the ‘pet/puppy’ clip – short hair over the entire body; and the ‘English Saddle’ clip – though similar to the Continental, this clip does not shave the rear of the dog, and leaves two bands of fur on the rear legs. It is rarely seen in Standard Poodles at shows. 
Size:There are three sizes of poodle, Toy, Miniature, and Standard.Toy:Dogs and bitches – Height: up to 10 inches/Weight: 6-9 poundsMiniature:Dogs and bitches – Height: 11-15 inches/Weight: 15-17 poundsStandard:Dogs – Height: over 15 inches/Weight: 50-70 poundsBitches – Height: over 15 inches/Weight: 45-60 pounds 
Breed Specific Health Issues:Hip Dysplasia is common in poodles, as are eye problems, including glaucoma and Progressive Retinal Atrophy which can cause blindness. Poodles are also known for skin problems, though these are most often because of the excessive grooming required for show dogs.  
Life Expectancy:Poodles are a long-lived breed, usually living for 12-15 years or longer in many cases. 
Grooming Requirements:Poodles to be used for shows need extensive grooming: clipping every 4-6 weeks, regular bathing, cleaning of the ears. Lighter-coloured dogs must have their eyes cleaned regularly, and around their mouths after every meal to avoid staining of the fur. Many pet owners are much happier with the ‘puppy clip’ which is one short length over the entire body. Much less grooming is needed for this clip. Poodles are very well-known as shedding little or no hair and producing very little dander which makes them the perfect pet for those with allergies.
                                                         ROTTWEILER

The Rottweiler has a large, athletic, muscular body which is topped by a broad head. Rottweilers have a black nose and very dark eyes. The legs are heavy and straight, and not too close together. Although the tail is docked in the USA , if showing internationally, kennel club regulations must be checked prior to docking. This breed has a short, hard dark coat with brown points ranging from orangey rust to deep mahogany.   Size:Dogs – Height: 24-27 inches/Weight: 95-120 poundsBitches – Height: 22-25/Weight: 85-110 pounds  Breed Specific Health Issues:Rottweilers are notorious for having bad hips because of Hip Dysplasia, and also for ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) problems. The ACL is the ligament in the back knee which often gets torn with this breed.  Life Expectancy:The average lifespan for the Rottweiler is 10-12 years.  Grooming Requirements:The smooth coat of the Rottweiler is easy to groom, needing only the occasional going over with a stiff brush and a bath when necessary.



                                                    SAINT BERNARD
Saint Bernard is a very large dog with a great head ending in a short, wide muzzle. The nose should always be black and the dog has large pendant ears. There are two coat types: short-haired and long-haired. The coat of the short-haired dog is very dense and tough while the long-haired coat is of medium length and slightly wavy, though never curly. The accepted coat colors include white with reddish markings, white with brown/yellow markings, or vice-versa – red with white markings or brown/yellow with white markings. There are certain necessary markings which can be found through the kennel club. Size:Dogs and bitches – Height: 25 ½ - 27 ½ inches/Weight: 120-200 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues:Hip Dysplasia, heart problems, and eye problems are the most common problems with Saint Bernards. Life Expectancy:This breed has an expected lifespan of 10-12 years. Grooming Requirements:Grooming the Saint Bernard is quite easy as it needs only a good brushing with a firm-bristled brush once a week or so. Bathe only when necessary as too frequent bathing removes essential oils from the dog’s skin.

                                                         SHIH TZU

The Shih Tzu is a small dog covered with a double coat – the undercoat is thick and woolly while the topcoat is long and soft. The head is rounded and completely covered by hair, including a long moustache and beard. The nose is black except on liver-colored dogs where the nose is liver, and the ears are pendant-shaped, but also completely covered in long hair that blends into the coat of the body. The eyes are large and dark, though lighter on lighter colored dogs. Shih Tzus should have an undershot bite, though the teeth and tongue should not be visible when the mouth is closed. The tail curls over the back and is also covered in long hair which blends into the body. All colors are acceptable for the Shih Tzu. Size:Dogs and bitches – Height: up to 11 inches/Weight: 9-16 poundsBreed Specific Health Issues:Problems with the teeth are most occurring among Shih Tzus – they are often lost at an early age. Spinal problems are also occasionally seen as their bodies are longer than they are tall. 
Life Expectancy:The Shih Tzu can live to be 15 years or more.  Grooming Requirements: When the coat is left long, this breed requires daily grooming with a brush with bristles. Some owners prefer clipping the coat short to make grooming easier. A topknot is used to tie back the hair from the face so the dog can see – Shih Tzus eyes can be sensitive so you must be sure to keep them clean and to keep hair out of their eyes.
                                                WEST HIGHLAND TERRIER
 
most recognized for its completely white coat which should be hard and roughly 2 inches long – the undercoat should also be white. The eyes should be dark brown and the nose should be large and black. The small, erect ears are pointed and the tail is un-docked, thicker at the base, and carried gaily, but not curled over the back. Size: Dogs – Height: 10-12 inches/Weight: 17-23 poundsBitches – Height: 9-11 inches/Weight: 13-20 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues: A very healthy breed overall, though some suffer from liver disease, calcification of the jawbone, and skin disease. Life Expectancy: The WEST HIGHLAND TERRIER is known for living for 15 years or more. Grooming Requirements: This breed has a very easy coat to care for, needing only an occasional going over with a stiff brush. The hair around the eyes, mouth and ears can be trimmed with scissors and the whole coat should be stripped about twice a year.

                                                   YORKSHIRE TERRIER
The compact body of the YORKSHRE TERRIER is covered by a long, silky coat of tan and blue, tan and black for puppies. This coat should part down the middle and skim the surface of the floor. The small head is not round, being rather flat on top, the muzzle is not too long, the nose is black, and the ears are small and erect. Size: Dogs and bitches – Height: 6-7 inches/Weight: 7-9 pounds Breed Specific Health Issues: Yorkies, as they are known, are prone to early tooth decay and some have trouble with anaesthetic. Many of this small breed suffer broken bones because they’ve jumped from a height that is too great. Life Expectancy: Life average life expectancy for the yorkshire terrier is 12-15 years.