Scientific Facts

Source:  Scientific Facts    Tag:  how is a hole in the heart repaired

Da Vinci Robot

Surgeons have carried out the first ever robotic open-heart operations in Britain at the New Cross Hospital in Wolverhampton.The Da Vinci robot is remotely controlled by surgeons who are given a high definition view of the heart through a sophisticated camera. Natalie Jones, of Stourbridge, 22, was the first patient to have the procedure to have a hole in her heart repaired. Doctors claim the operation is safer for patients than conventional surgery.
Image formed in the monitor by the robot 

Normal heart surgery involves cutting open the chest plate, but the robotic arms are inserted by making cuts between the patient's ribs. A surgeon is given a 3D, high-definition view of the heart and can move the arms using a control panel. Each time they move their hand 3mm, the robot arm moves just 1mm.
Mrs Jones had a 3.5cm (1.3in) hole in her heart repaired during surgery which lasted nine hours.Heart surgeon Stephen Billing said: "There is less pain and patients are able to return home to their normal activities far sooner."
The da Vinci System has been successfully used in the following procedures:
  • Radical prostatectomy, pyeloplasty, cystectomy, nephrectomy, ureteral reimplantation;
  • Hysterectomy, myomectomy and sacrocolpopexy;
  • Cholecystectomy, Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, gastric bypass, donor nephrectomy, adrenalectomy, splenectomy and bowel resection;
  • Internal artery a blood vessel mobilization and cardiac tissue ablation;
  • Mitral valve repair, endoscopic atrial septal defect closure;
  • to left anterior descending coronary artery anastomosis for cardiac revascularization with adjunctive mediastinotomy
  • Transoral resection of tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract (tonsil, tongue base, larynx), transaxillary thyroidectomy

Critics Of Da Vinci System:-
  1. Critics of robotic surgery say there is a steep learning curve for surgeons who adopt it, and that there's a lack of studies that indicate long-term results are superior to results following traditional laparoscopic surgery.
  2. The Da Vinci system uses a proprietary software, which cannot be modified by physicians, thereby limiting the freedom to modify the operation system

Why does the rising and setting Sun appear Red?

When the sun rises in the east, it appears like a red ball. As the day advances, its color appears white, but again at the time of sunset in the evening, it appears red. Do you know why is it so?
We know that our earth is surrounded by the blanket of air called the atmosphere. Sunlight passes through the atmosphere before it reaches us. We also know that sun light is composed of seven colours- VIBGYOR. In the morning and evening, when the sun is near the horizon the rays have to travel about fifty times longer path in the atmosphere to reach us than it does in the noon. The dust, smoke and water vapour present in the atmosphere scatter away these colours differently. Violet, indigo and blue are scattered most and red and orange scattered least. That is why most of these two colours reach our eyes. As a result, the rising and setting sun appears red.

A rock analysed by NASA's Mars rover Curiosity has a surprising and more varied composition that resembles rare rocks from the bowels of our planet, the US space agency said.
"This rock is a close match in chemical composition to an unusual but well-known type of igneous rock found in many volcanic provinces on Earth," Curiosity co-investigator Edward Stolper of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena said in a statement.
"With only one Martian rock of this type, it is difficult to know whether the same processes were involved, but it is a reasonable place to start thinking about its origin."
Jake - the red dots are where the ChemCam instrument zapped it with laser
On Earth, rocks with similar compositions usually come from "processes in the planet's mantle beneath the crust, from the crystallisation of relatively water-rich magma at elevated pressure," according to the NASA statement.
Curiosity, which has been on the Red Planet since August 6, used two instruments to study the football-sized rock, which is dubbed Jake Matijevic, or Jake for short.
One was the arm-mounted Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer — known as APXS — and the other was the Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument.

"Jake is kind of an odd Martian rock," said APXS principal investigator Ralf Gellert of the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. "It's high in elements consistent with the mineral feldspar, and low in magnesium and iron."
NASA said the initial results were just a preview, noting that Curiosity also carries analytical laboratories inside the rover.
Soon, it plans to analyse its first Martian soil sample.
"We used Curiosity's first perfectly scooped sample for cleaning the interior surfaces of our 150-micron sample-processing chambers," said Chris Roumeliotis, lead turret rover planner at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "It's our version of a Martian car wash."
NASA has also determined that a bright object observed on the ground near the robot several days ago was just a bit of plastic that does not jeopardise the rover's operations.
Curiosity is on a two-year, $US2.5 billion mission to investigate whether it is possible to live on Mars and to learn whether conditions there might have been able to support life in the past.

Why Do We Have Two Eyes?

The reason for only two eyes (and not one or four) is probably due to the limitations of embryological development and evolution.

The body is generally symmetrical, and has been for almost the entire evolution of multicellular animals. So left-right duplication is the default, making one eye development difficult.

The advantage of two eyes historically has been twice as much vision. In most animals (insects, fish, reptiles, birds, rodents), each eye handles vision on half of the body. Humans and monkeys are unusual in that both eyes face forward, have overlapping visual fields, and can rotate in their socket across a wide field of view. This makes 3D stereo vision possible. Owls also have front-facing eyes with stereo vision to help with hunting.

But why not more than two eyes?  Vision is so valuable to humans that an extra pair of eyes would seem useful. Spiders have 8 eyes, and some jellyfish have 24. 

The reason for "only two" is probably due to the limits of the evolutionary process. The two-eye body plan goes back 500 million years to fish and spans all vertebrates. The eye is so complex and specialized, that there may just not be an incremental way to get from two functioning eyes to four in a sequence of individual genetic mutations. (In contrast, extra ribs, spinal vertebrae, fingers, and toes occasionally occur.) When extra eyes do occur in mammals, it is because the whole face or head is (partially) duplicated, and survival rate is low. 

Adding to the complexity of eyes in humans is the fact that the left side of both retinas goes to the left side of the brain and vice versa. This happens in a neural crossover called the optic chiasm ( This way each side of the brain can receive the two overlapping frontal visual regions to achieve 3D stereo depth vision.

As a result, adding extra eyes would require quite a bit of additional complex circuitry, which evolution cannot easily accomplish incrementally.




What makes you dizzy when you spin?

If you have ever spun around like a top or rolled down a hill, then you have probably experienced dizziness or vertigo. Some people even get dizzy just getting up too fast from the sofa. When you become dizzy, a part of your body that senses motion has sent the wrong signal to your brain. An amazing system in your inner ear is the key to dizziness.
The body senses whether it is upright or lying down or whether it is moving or standing still through the vestibular system, which is in the upper portion of the inner ear. 

Vestibular system contains a number of parts, of which the most important are:A fluid called endolymph and hair-like sensory nerve cells. 

Here is how the vestibular system senses motion:

  1. As your head moves in a given direction, the endolymph lags behind because it resists a change in motion (the principle of inertia).
  2. The lagging endolymph stimulates hair cells to send nerve signals to the brain.
  3. The brain interprets them to know which way the head has moved.
When you spin, the endolymph slowly moves in the direction you are spinning. The movement of the endolymph signals the brain that the head is spinning. The brain quickly adapts to the signal because the endolymph begins to move at the same rate that you are spinning and no longer stimulates the hair cells. However, when you stop spinning, the endolymph continues to move and stimulate hair cells in the opposite direction. These hair cells send signals to the brain. The brain determines that the head is still spinning, even though you have stopped. This is where the dizzy feeling comes from. Eventually, the endolymph stops moving, no signals are sent to the brain, your brain determines that your motion has stopped, and you no longer feel dizzy.

Try this short experiment, unless you are extremely sensitive to dizziness.

  1. Spin around 5-10 times rapidly to the right and stop. When you stop, you will feel slightly dizzy as described above.
  2. When you have recovered, repeat step 1, but when you stop this time, immediately spin the same number of times to the left and stop. You should now find that when you stop, you do not feel as dizzy.
In the second situation, you have begun to move the endolymph in opposite directions and the two effects of motion tend to cancel out.

Anti Gravity
We hope you are enjoying the flood of posts after the exams. We also hope that you didn't screw up your exams (hopefully thanks to the sample papers which were posted on our blog).

Today, I would like to introduce you to the concept of antigravity. From the hoverboards of "Back to the Future" to the gravity guns of "Half-Life 2," science fiction is peppered with antigravity technology. In the real world of peer-reviewed studies, corporate-funded labs and general relativity, however, "antigravity" is a dirty word.
Gravity, you undoubtedly remember, is the attractive force between objects. It holds you to the planet and keeps the planet orbiting around the sun. As you might imagine, the idea of reducing, canceling or protecting against this effect of gravity is highly appealing.
Antigravity technology would revolutionize space exploration and energy production. It would slash the energy demands of travel and transportation. First, however, we'd just have to drastically alter our understanding of physics and figure out how to counter this powerful force.
As such, antigravity technology remains both the Holy Grail and a red flag. There's been no shortage of hoaxes, conspiracy theories and credibility-straining reports regarding its research.

For example, in 1992, Russian physicist Evgeny Podkletnov claimed to have successfully tested a device that shields an object from gravity. The experiment involved levitating a superconducting disc above amagnet. No one -- including NASA researchers -- has been able to replicate this experiment in the nearly two decades since that time. In 2002, noted aviation journalist Nick Cook's research into supposed Nazi antigravity research failed to win over critics.
Evgeny Podkletnov's proposed antigravity machine
You might be starting to see why "antigravity" is a taboo subject. Or why NASA has chosen previously to research antigravity through projects with names like Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project (1996-2002). NASA even published a booklet titled "Responding to Mechanical Antigravity" to help amateur and professional researchers, most of whom submitted ideas (as many as 100 per year) involving machines that falsely appeared to create an antigravity effect.
And just in case you're wondering, NASA's zero-gravity flights aboard modified C-9 aircraft are not examples of antigravity. Neither is the levitation effect achieved in 2007 by countering Casimir force, a quantum force that essentially causes objects to stick to one another -- a type of nanofriction [source: ScienceDaily]. Antigravity, on the other hand, involves lessening the effects of gravitational pull on an object, and the science just isn't there yet.
Many scientists strongly believe that antigravity isn't possible, given what we know about the universe and the laws that govern it. So for now, all those amazing antigravity gizmos are going to have to remain within the realm of science fiction.

Red Rain in India

The Kerala red rain phenomenon was a blood rain (red rain) event that occurred from July 25 to September 23, 2001, when red-coloured rain sporadically fell on the southern Indian state of Kerala. Heavy downpours occurred in which the rain was colored red, staining clothes pink. Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported. Colored rain had been reported in Kerala as early as 1896 and several times since then, most recently in June 2012.  It was initially thought that the rains were colored by fallout from a hypothetical meteor burst, but a study commissioned by the Government of India concluded that the rains had been colored by airborne spores from locally prolific terrestrial algae.

It was not until early 2006 that the colored rains of Kerala gained widespread attention when the popular media reported that Godfrey Louis and Santhosh Kumar of the Mahatma Gandhi University in Kottayam proposed a controversial argument that the colored particles were extraterrestrial cells.

Why do we look up when thinking?

We have seen that most of us look up while thinking. But why? Could not find the answer. Don't look up!
 Neurolinguists(psychologists who do research based on practical application)  have found that most people tend to view life largely through one dominant sense - usually sight, hearing or touching. This sensory orientation also affects the person's choice of words in explaining a thought or feeling.
  People with varying sensory orientation use different verbs & adjectives to describe exactly the same thing.  For example, a hearing oriented person might say,"I hear what you're saying". The visually oriented person might say,"I see what you mean". The touch-dominant person might say,"I feel good about what you're saying". Actually, all 3 of the above quotes meant the same thing "I understand you". 
 Also when finding an answer to question people use one of the 3 dominant senses to seek the solution. For example, if a person is asked to remember a phone number then : One might try to picture an image of number(visual); One might try to remember the sound of the digits(hearing); And the last might try to recall the feel of dialing the number(touch).
 So, thoughts involve creating images, sounds or feelings either remembered from the past or a new thought. Nuerolinguists found that the sensory apparatus of a person can be identified and even whether they were constructing new thoughts or remembering old ones - by observing the eye movements
 The eye movements have been codified into seven basic types of eye movements.
                     Direction                                                  Thought process
                     Up-right                                     visually remembered images
                     Up-left                                        visually constructed new 
                     Straight-right                            auditorily remembered
                                                                                  sounds or words
                     Straight-left                               auditorily constructed new
                                                                                     sounds or  words
                     Down-right                                auditory sounds or
                                                                              words(often while
                                                                              hearing a  dialogue)
                      Down-left                                  feeling due to touch(which                                                                               includes smell, taste)
                    Straight ahead                           accessing information(often
                   (no movement)                                 visually, also called  
                                                                                      non movement)

You can also try this on your friends, it will surely work. For example, you ask someone to describe his first bicycle you can expect him to look up-right. 
  To get back to the actual imponderable - why do we look up when thinking? The answer is that most of us, a good part of time, try to answer questions by visualizing the answers.  

Quantum Jumping

Scientist have always believed that there exists several universe all of which would have the same properties and abide by the same laws of physics.This would mean that there would be several Earths were the same person lives in different universes.Sounds unbelievable right? this theory was known as the parallel universe theory. but now people have started thinking ahead and have produced a theory where people jump from one universe to its corresponding parallel universe.Imagine being able to speak with your alternate self.This is known as a Quantum Jumping.For better understanding. 

They say this is done through a process called thought transference. While this can’t be proven or disproven, some scientists have believed that in order to change where you are (your location), you merely need to change your thought pattern or frequencies.

Have you ever seen some person moving an object by just looking or concentrating at it.Well, don’t be amazed at this you can seriously do it. For knowing how to do it just watch this Video.

Psychokinesis also referred to as telekinesis with respect to strictly describing movement of matter, abbreviated as PK and TK respectively, is a term coined by publisher Henry Holt to refer to the direct influence of mind on aphysical that cannot be entirely accounted for by the mediation of any known physical energy-examples of Psychokinesis could include distorting or moving an object and influencing the output of a random number generator.
The study of phenomena said to be psychokinetic is part of parapsychology. Some Psychokinesis researchers claim Psychokinesis exists and deserves further study, although the focus of research has shifted away from large-scale phenomena to attempts to influence dice and then to random number generators.
Most scientists believe that the existence of Psychokinesis has not been convincingly demonstrated. A meta-analysis of 380 studies in 2006 found a "very small" effect which could possibly be explained by publication bias. PK experiments have historically been criticised for lack of proper controls and repeatability. However, some experiments have created illusions of PK where none exists, and these illusions depend to an extent on the subject's prior belief in PK.

Why Do Onions Make Us Cry?

Why do we cry when we cut onion? Is it because onions hate us and they make us cry?
Let's look at it from the point of view of the onion. An onion is perfectly polite to us until we start hacking at it with a knife. Alas, the act of cutting enlivens a gas, propanethiol S-oxide, which works with enzymes to unleash a passive carbon compound found in onion. The result : as you cut, the gas moves upwards and, combines with water in your eyes, and creates sulphuric acid. Your eyes aren't happy, even if you are, and react in the only way they know when irritated by a foreign substance - they start tearing. Water produced by the tear ducts washes the acid formed to remove the foreign material.

So We cry(start tearing) to to flush the sulphuric acid formed in our eyes due to the propanethiol S-oxide gas which is produced as we cut the onions.

Lucid Dreaming

Have you ever imagined being awake while you dream? Well think again.
Because all those things which we thought was impossible like flying,
creating fireballs, meeting a famous celebrity are now possible. And the best part is that all of this can be achieved by everyone, you just have to know how to. 
If you want to know how to than watch the video given below

So if you watched it you should know by now what a wonderful thing this is. And for those who don't believe that this is possible, it is scientifically proven to exist. So what are you waiting for? Go get your dream journal and enter the world of Lucid dreaming.