Scientific facts:

Source:  Scientific facts:    Tag:  chromosomes facts
Scientific facts:
The sperms are formed in the testicles, which in turn are created, as proved by embryology, from cells underneath the kidneys at the back and then go down to the lower abdomen at the last weeks of pregnancy. Man’s fluid mainly contains the following components: the sperms which should be gushing, and motile to cause fertilization and Prostaglandinwhich causes contractions to the uterus, thus helping the transport of sperms into the place of fertilization. The man's fluid (semen) contains also sugar necessary for providing energy for the sperms, different fluids for neutralizing the acids at the entrance of the uterus and creating a slippery environment for the easy movement of the sperms.

While hundred millions of these sperms (500 m.- 600 m.) enter through the vagina to the uterine cervix, only one sperm is able to fertilize the ovum (Fig. 2); crossing through a long distance to reach the place of fertilization in the Fallopian Uterine Tube which connects the ovary with the uterus. The distance is full of obstacles that can be compared with the distance man takes to reach the moon! After direct fertilization, a quick change occurs to the membrane of the ovum preventing the entrance of the rest of the sperms.
The sperm contains 23 chromosomes, of which one chromosome determines the sex of the embryo. The chromosome in the sperm is either (Y) or (X), while the chromosome in the ovum is always (X). When a sperm of the chromosome type (Y) mingles with an ovum of the chromosome (X), the formed zygote will be male (XY), whereas the embryo will be female (XX) if the sperm (X) mingles with an (X) ovum. So, the sex of the embryo is determined by the sperm (the male), rather than the ovum (the female).
After 5 hours of forming the zygote, which is the primary human cell containing 46 chromosomes, the dominant and recessive genetic characteristics can appear in the parent's sons or grandsons (the stage of genetic programming). The zygote is then divided quickly (Fig. 3) without a change in size and move from the Fallopian Tube (connecting the ovary and the uterus) towards the uterus, where it is implanted as seeds are implanted in the soil.

(Fig. 2) Of hundreds of sperms, only one can fertilize the ovum.



(Fig. 3) The zygote divides within hours of the process of fertilization.
(A picture taken by the Microscope)
The Uterus is the place where the embryo grows and develops before emerging as a fully created and well formed child. The uterus is distinguished as a safe place to perform this function for the following reasons:
1- The location of the uterus in the woman’s pelvis, where it is protected with ligaments and fascia that hold the uterus from the sides and allow its mobility and growth to hundred times its size at full term pregnancy.
2- Muscles of pelvis and perineum fix the uterus in-situ.
3- The secretion of Progesterone (pregnancy hormone) helps stabilize the uterus and slows down the uterine contractions.
4- The embryo in uterus is surrounded with different membranes that produce amniotic fluid which the embryo swims in to protect the embryo from the effect of external traumas .
The process of fertilization and the travel of the zygote to the uterus continue for about 6 days, and the zygote keeps implanting ( known as blastocyst) and growing in the uterus wall for 15 days, when the Alaqa (thick clotted blood) stage begins.

Reflections and comments on related Quranic verses:
Nutfa” in Arabic means “very little water” or “a drop of water”. This coincides with man’s water which contains sperms as part of its components. The sperm or (spermatozoon) is reproduced from the despised lowly water (nutfa) and looks like a long-tailed fish (this is one of the meanings of Sulalah). Allah the Almighty says;
الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ   كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ  .  ثُمَّ جَعَلَ   نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاء مَّهِينٍ   ) (السجدة :7-8)
“He It is Who created all things in the best way and began the creation of man from clay, and made his progeny from an extract of despised fluid (Sulalah)” (32: 7-8)