Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Source:  Nasopharyngeal carcinoma    Tag:  blue sclera causes

- Description:
- Malignant neoplasm, arising from the mucosal epithelium of the nasopharynx, most often within the lateral nasopharyngeal recess or fossa of Rosenmüller (a recess behind the entrance of the eustachian tube opening).
- It is a squamous cell carcinoma or an undifferentiated type.
- Squamous cells are a flat type of cell found in the skin and the membranes that line some body cavities.

- Classification: (By World Health Organization):
The World Health Organization classifies nasopharyngeal carcinoma in three types:
- Type 1: is squamous cell carcinoma.
- Type 2: is keratinizing undifferentiated carcinoma.
- Type 2: is nonkeratinizing undifferentiated carcinoma.

- Stages:
Staging of nasophayngeal carcinoma is based on clinical and radiologic examination.
Most patients present with Stage III or IV disease.
- Stage I is a small tumor confined to nasopharynx.
- Stage II is a tumor extending in the local area, or that with any evidence of limited neck (nodal) disease.
- Stage III is a large tumor with or without neck disease, or a tumor with bilateral neck disease.
- Stage IV is a large tumor involving intracranial or infratemporal regions, an extensive neck disease, and/or any distant metastasis.

- Signs and Symptoms:
- Cervical lymphadenopathy is the initial presentation in many patients.
- A lump in your neck caused by a swollen lymph node
- Blood in your saliva
- Bloody discharge from your nose
- Nasal congestion
- Hearing loss
- Frequent ear infections
- Headaches
- Trismus, pain, otitis media
- Nasal regurgitation due to paresis of the soft palate and cranial nerve palsies (paralysis).
N.B: Larger growths may produce nasal obstruction or bleeding and a "nasal twang".

- Causes:
- Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) for Type II and III
- Particularly, human papillomavirus HPV for Type I

- Complications:
- Cancer that grows to invade nearby structures, Invading throat, bones and brain.
- Cancer that spreads to other areas of the body, regional metastases invading the lymph nodes in the neck, or distant metastases invading bones, lungs and liver.

- Treatment:
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma can be treated by surgery, by chemotherapy, or by radiotherapy.

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