Source:  MNEMONICS    Tag:  incompetent cervix hereditary
Auscultatory areas

Thursday, December 31, 2009, 1:08:58 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Auscultatory areas starting from left 2nd intercostal space:

Remember: All Patients Take Medicines

Aortic - Pulmonary - Tricuspid - Mitral


• Only Aortic area is on left ; Remember that ALL stands for aortic area - read as Aortic Left Left ; Why 2 lefts? Because it's in 2nd IC space )

• If you want to remember the other intercostal spaces where the auscultatory areas on right are situated just imagine a patient in Room no.245 - Right 2, 4, 5 IC spaces in that order for Pulmonary, Tricuspid, Mitral in that order of All Patients Take Medicine.

• Confusion buster: Please note that Aorta arises from left ventricle, but auscultatory area is on right side. Note the same problem with Pulmonary artery.

• Also check our older posts - Aorta and IVC : left or right ?

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DDH - Clinical Examination (Tests)

Wednesday, December 30, 2009, 1:38:28 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Ortholani's and Barlow's tests detect DDH. You might confuse between the two tests or you may feel that both are the same. First, here is what the tests are:

• Barlow's test: The maneuver is performed by adducting the hip while applying light pressure on the knee, directing the force posteriorly. If the hip is dislocatable, the test is considered positive. The Ortolani maneuver is then used, to confirm that the positive finding (i.e., that the hip actually dislocated).

• Ortholoni's test: It is performed by gently abducting the infant's leg using the examiner's thumb while placing anterior pressure on the greater trochanter using the examiner's index and forefinger. A positive sign is a distinctive 'clunk' which can be heard and felt as the femoral head relocates anteriorly into the acetabulum.

Now here's how to remember the two tests:

Barlow's test - you feel the Dislocation - so Barlow's test is Bad test as you are dislocating from joint.

ORTHOlani - you try to feel the Reduction - like ORTHOpedicians reducing all fractures and dislocations.

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Medicine clinical examination ; Stethoscope sounds

Wednesday, December 30, 2009, 1:34:26 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The stethoscope's diaphragm is larger than the bell. So remember - diapragm (LARGER) picks up HIGH pitched sounds; Bell (SMALLER) picks up LOW pitched sounds.

AeGophony- like bleating of A Goat ; Ask the patient to say 'A', you hear 'E' (AEgophony)

Bronchophony - spoken from the EARpiece (BEAR).

sIbiliant rhonchi is hIgh pitched; sOnorous- lOw pitched

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History taking : Description of symptoms

Wednesday, December 30, 2009, 1:33:52 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The history of specific symptoms have to be described in this order:

Remember that a good doctor takes a good history before he OPERATES

Onset of symptoms


Exacerbating factors

Relieving factors

Associated symptoms

Time relation of symptoms ( Night pain etc )

Episodic nature ( Symptom free intervals etc )

Systemic inquiry related to symptom

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Micro organisms which don't Gram stain well

Tuesday, December 29, 2009, 10:14:38 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

List of Microbes which may not gram stain well:

Remember: " These Microscopic Rascals May Look Colourless "







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Mitosis and Meosis

Wednesday, December 16, 2009, 11:45:00 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• Stages of mitosis:

( Remember PROfessor MAT taught us Mitosis )





• Stages of meosis are Prophase-I, Metaphase-I, Anaphase-I, Telophase-I, followed by Prophase-II, Metaphase-II, Anaphase-II, Telophase-II

( Remember PROfessor MAT taught me meosis twice - I & II )

• mItosis gives 2 dIploid daughter ceels

• MEosis keeps ME very HAPpy with 4 HAPloid daughter cells

Structures behind medial malleolus

Wednesday, December 16, 2009, 8:38:45 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Structures that pass behind medial malleolus deep to flexor retinaculum (From anterior to posterior):

Remember: Tall Doctors Are Never Hungry.

Tibialis posterior,

flexor Digitorum longus,

posterior tibial Artery,

tibial Nerve,

flexor Hallucis longus tendon

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Chest pain : What attending nurses should do

Tuesday, December 15, 2009, 1:35:04 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

In case the attending nurse sees a patient with chest pain, she should MOVE the patient to emergency care unit:

Remember MOVE:

Monitor (cardiac monitor) connect

Oxygen administration

Venous access with large bore canula

ECG to be taken

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Good Pasture's Syndrome

Friday, December 25, 2009, 11:08:57 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

In Good Pasture's syndrome, there is auto antibodies against Glomeruli (causing Glomerulonephritis ) & Pulmonary basement membrane ( causing Pneumonitis )

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Seronegative spondyloarthropathies

Saturday, December 12, 2009, 11:05:17 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Sero negative spondyloarthropathies are:

Remember RAP(P)E -

R- Reiters syndrome

A- Ankylosing spondylitis

P- Psoriatic arthropathy

P- Pseudogout

E- Enteropathic arthritis(chrons disease,ulcerative colitis,behchets syndrome)

This mnemonic was sent by Mr. Kamal A.P. for benefit of all our readers. Thanks again.

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Sister Mary Joseph Node

Wednesday, December 09, 2009, 1:08:42 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

To remember the named signs, it would be better to know a little bit of history. There might be an interesting incident related to a person who gave the name of the sign / syndrome. One such interesting case is how Sister Mary Joseph node got it's name. Also called Sister Mary Joseph sign, refers to a palpable nodule bulging into the umbilicus as a result of metastasis of a malignant cancer in the pelvis or abdomen.

To remember this sign better, let's go back to history. Imagine these events:

Scene: St. Mary's Hospital in Rochester; Dr. Mayo is taking rounds with Sr. Mary Joseph, his surgical assistant helping him.Sr. Mary drew Mayo's attention to the phenomenon, and he published an article about it in 1928.

Now remember this better with the picture given below.

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Puddle's Sign

Wednesday, December 09, 2009, 11:38:40 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Some signs can be better understood and remembered by knowing the meaning of word. Of course, most of the signs are named after people, but we are lucky to have few signs otherwise. For example, when I asked one medical student why Puddle's sign is named so, he told me that it was named after Dr. Puddle and he didnot remember what the sign was about.

So what's a puddle? A puddle is a small collection of liquid, usually we refer to a puddle of water in the ground after a rain etc. This is used to detect minimal fluid collection in the abdomen i.e. minimal ascitis.

Now to remember, you have the picture given below. There's a puddle, a sign board reading 120 ml and a Gorilla. Puddle sign can detect ascitis as less as 120 ml. What's the Gorilla doing there? The Gorilla's position is the position we use to elicit puddle sign. To make this more clear, let us see how to elicit this sign.

Let patient lie prone for 5 minutes, after which he/she has to rise on his/her elbow and knees (that's like the Gorilla!) and by the method of auscultatory percussion you find that there is resonant note in the flanks and dull note towards the center of abdomen i.e. the puddle forms at the central part of abdomen.

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Anticoagulant in Pregnancy

Tuesday, December 08, 2009, 11:12:12 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Which anticoagulant can be used in pregnancy? Heparin or Warfarin?

Answer is Heparin. WARfarin SHOULD NOT BE used. Remember: There SHOULD NOT BE WAR IN pregnancy.

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Ricketsial diseases and causitive organisms

Monday, December 07, 2009, 8:04:56 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Ricketsial POX : R. AKArI (see the picture above - AKAI)

ePidemic typhus : R. Prowazekii

Rocky mountain spotted fever : R. Riketssi

Q - Fever : COXiella BURNetti ( Imagine Camel & OX walking in a queue i.e. "Q" in a BURNing desert)

Srub typhus : R. TSUTSUgamushi (Imagine the sound while scrubbing - TSU TSU TSU TSUgamushi; alternatively remember only SUsugamushi, with "t" silent for ScrUb). SCRub typhus causes eSChaR

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Treatment of Leprosy

Monday, December 07, 2009, 2:04:29 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

For Paucibacillary Leprosy -

• Daily - Dapsone 100 mg

• Monthly - Rifampicin 600 mg

• Duration: 6 months

For Multibacillary Leprosy -

• Daily - Dapsone 100 mg + Clofazamine 50 mg

• Monthly - Rifampicin 600 mg + Clofazamine 300 mg

• Duration: 2 yrs

Remember this with the formula D / R for paucibacillary and DC / RC for multibacillary

Explanation: The denominator is the monthly drug to be taken. In case of multibacillary leprosy, note that the dose of Clofazamine, be it monthly or daily, is half the dose of other drug taken along with it ( 100 / 2 = 50, 600 / 2 = 300 ). Duration of treatment is 1/2 yrs and 2 yrs for Pauci & Multibacillary leprosy respectively.

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Indicators of fecal water pollution

Sunday, December 06, 2009, 11:44:10 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Which of these is a bio indicator of past pollution with fecal matter?

a) Faecal Streptococci b) Clostridium perfringens c) both d) none

The answer is b.

How to remember:

Cl. perfringes is an indicator of past water pollution

Also remember that the indicator of recent water pollution is Faecal Streptococci ( Recent = Short term - Streptococci )

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Enzyme deficiancy in Phenylketonuria

Friday, December 04, 2009, 7:24:29 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

PHenylketonuria - Enzyme deficient is Phenylalanine Hydroxylase

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Bone & Cartilage - Collagen types

Thursday, December 03, 2009, 1:24:19 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• bONE is made of type ONE collagen; Alternatively see the picture of bone which looks like '1'

• CARTilage is made of type two collagen. See the picture of cart with '2' inside the cart. Alternatively remember carTWOlage

• Still if you find it confusing remember B of bone comes before C of cartilage; B-1, C-2.

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Subunits of Brachial Plexus

Tuesday, December 01, 2009, 1:13:01 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember Rajasthan Transport Development Corporation Board (RTDCB):

Roots join to form Trunks

Trunks join to form Divisions

Divisions join to form Cords

Cords join to form Branches


Alternatively, remember Real Teenagers Drink Cold Beer

Other alternative mnemonics sent by Mr. Frank Hopkins made with his mnemonic generating software:

Uses 1st Two Letters of Each Term

Romanian Troops Diverted Combat Brigade

Round Trembling Divas Cold Breasts

Uses 1st Letters Only

Real Tight Dollar Closed Banks

Raining Twenty Days Collapsed Bridge

Real Tequila Drinker Charlie Boozer

Remember That Dudes Chick's Bootie

Raise The Dead Crying Behold!!! (This has a more religious tone to it)

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How bones got their names

Sunday, November 29, 2009, 1:50:25 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Many of the medical names are derived from latin. If you study a bit of latin or greek you will find medical terms getting simpler. Below is a picture depicting how few bones got their names (Starting from the first picture row wise):


In Latin, acetum = vinegar and -bulum, a suffix signifying the instrument. Acetabulum was thought to resemble a small vinegar cruet of roman times.


In Latin means a flute. Yes, a tibia after removal of external fixators looks like a flute :-)


In Latin means a little plate. So next time have food in a big patella !


In Anglo Saxon means a bowl. Eat brain from the bowl !


In Greek, olenokranon, from olene = elbow and kranos = helmet. In other words, the protector of the elbow. Elbow's helmet !


In Greek, kokkyx = cuckoo. This bone looks like the beak of a cuckoo. Huh?


In Latin, pelvis means basin.


In Latin, clavicula, diminutive of clavis = a key. Clavicle resembled those old keys. Anyway, don't use your clavicle to open your door :-)

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Atrioventricular Valves

Tuesday, November 24, 2009, 1:09:22 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

tRIcuspid valve is in RIght atrium

Bicuspid valve in Left atrium ( Remember BiLe)

Bicuspid valve is also called MitraL valve. So mitraL is on Left

If you know what is a "mitre", then you can easily remember that bicuspid valve is mitral. "Mitre" is the hat that you see often worn by bishops. It has 2 leafs resembling the cusps. See picture below.

• Alternatively, imagine a RAT in LAB; Right Atrium Tricuspid, Left Atrium Bicuspid.

• If you know Hindi, remember DoMitr (Two friends) Bicuspid valve = Mitral valve by

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Aorta and IVC - left or right?

Tuesday, November 24, 2009, 11:12:15 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Anatomy was very confusing, especially relative position of structures. One constant confuser was the position of Aorta and Venacava as they descend into thorax.

I remembered that the AoRTa is RighT .

Here's another way to remember : Both a-o-r-t-a and r-i-g-h-t have 5 letters; v-e-n-a and c-a-v-a and l-e-f-t have 4 letters.

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Frozen shoulder: Sequence of manipulation

Monday, November 23, 2009, 4:36:17 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)


Remember FEAR: (The manipulation of shoulder has to be carried out in this sequence)



Abduction, followed by Adduction ( Remember Ab comes before Ad in dictionary)

Rotations (Internal & external)

Thank you Kamal for the good mnemonic :-)

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Saturday, November 21, 2009, 10:19:28 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The picture can be remembered for classification of enzymes. Note the mnemonics highlighted in big black letters.

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Coagulation factors consumed in clot

Thursday, November 19, 2009, 1:05:36 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The factors consumed in clot are 1, 2, 5, 8. You can remember this by imagining a watch showing the time as 12:58 - 1,2,5,8 ; Also imagine CFC (Clotting factors consumed) written on the watch.

Another mnemonic was sent by our reader Mr. Shiva; Shiva just keeps singing 1,2,5,8 what do we appreciate? clots!

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Amyloidosis of Spleen

Wednesday, November 18, 2009, 9:38:40 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

There are 2 types of Amyloidosis of spleen - Sago spleen and Lardaceous spleen

What is the difference between the two?

Remember - Super Fast bus has Less Passengers (SF-LP)

Sago spleen - Amyloid deposit in Follicles

Lardaceous spleen - Amyloid deposits mostly in Pulp

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Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

Tuesday, November 17, 2009, 1:24:12 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

In NPH, there is

Abnormal P,H ( P = Pee problems = urinary incontinence; H = Head problem = dementia )


Absent signs of raised intracranial tension ( like headache, vomiting )

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Quadriceps femoris

Friday, November 13, 2009, 7:15:17 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Components of Quadriceps femoris muscle are:

Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus intermedius, Vastus medialis. Remember the picture below:

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Citric Acid Cycle

Wednesday, November 11, 2009, 12:02:09 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Here's how to remember the KTC = Kreb's or TCA or Citric acid cycle:

Remember "Citric Acid Is Kreb's Starting Substrate For Mitochondrial Oxidation"

These stands for the substrates in order:

Citric acid




Succinyl CoA





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Vitamin K dependent factors

Sunday, November 01, 2009, 1:08:06 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

To remember the vitamin K dependent factors, try to memorize this picture. They are factors 2, 7, 9, 10. The story behind the picture mnemonic. In year 2K ( = 2000 = factor 2 is K dependant ), a pregnant lady after carrying her child for 9 months, caring all 7 days a week, gave birth to a child. The child grew up, got 10 upon 10 marks.

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Vitamin D metabolism

Monday, October 26, 2009, 9:20:59 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

UV rays from sun act on skin, convert Cholecalciferol (CC) --> 25 Hydroxy CC in liver --> 1,25 Di Hydroxy CC in kidney.

So there are two hydroxylation reactions, first in Liver, second in Kidney. Remember this: You have 1 liver, 2 kidneys; So hydroxylation 1st reaction in your 1 liver and 2nd hydroxylation in 2 kidneys.

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The Cephalosporins

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 8:12:18 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• First Generation Cephahlosporins - Remember this story:

Mr. Fazol (ceFAZOLin) is a Lorry Driver (cephaLORIdine). He works very hard and has become Thin (cephaloTHIN) He has a "Rad" Watch on his hand (cephRADine) and a "Lux" soap (cephaLEXin). He wears a bright green Drawer {i.e trousers} ( cefaDROxil)

Route of drug administration: He will put the Lux soap in his Drawer - (Cefalexin & Cefradine are given orally. The latter can also be given i.v. /.i.m.. All others- i.v. /.i.m)

• Second Generation Cephalosporins: Remember FOX, FUR, FAC - ceFOXitin, ceFURoxime, ceFAClor

• Third Generation Cephalosporins - The story goes thus:

Mr. Aziz (ceftAZIdime) is taking an Ox (ceftizOXime, cefpodOXime) in a Taxi (cefoTAXIme) for slaughtering, i.e. an Operation (cefOPERAZONE). For this purpose he is taking Three Axon blades (cefTRIAXONe). He will Fix (ceFIXime) the ox for dinner (cefDINIR) in a short time!

Route of drug administration: Fix the price and eat (only Cefixime is given oral: all others im/iv).

ADRs: Operation will cause bleeding (Cefoperazone cause bleeding)

• Fourth Generation Cephalosporins:

My wierd dream: QUEEN of ROME who FLEW to OZONE layer, fell down and was made IP (Inpatient) by ME. Helps you to remember fourth generation cephalosporins - Cefquinome, Cefpirome, Cefluprenam, Cefozopran, Cefipime.

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Microbiology - Special Stains

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 8:09:03 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

You know Gram stain is for Bacteria, Acid Fast for Mycobacterium (also Nocardia). Remember other special stains below:

Giemsa : CAmpylobacter, Malaria, Leishmaniasis (CAMeL) (Remember the picture of Giemsa Camel above)

Silver stain : pNEumocystis (CARnii), FUNgi, LEGionella (Remember the picture above : it's a SILVER NEW CAR with FUNny LEGs)

MuciCaRmine - CRyptococci

Periodic Acid Schiff: FUNgi, amoeba (A FUNny amoeba just PASsed away)

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Anti Tuberculous Drugs (ATT)

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 8:08:02 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember the REP ( Medical representative ) offering you an iPod. Let us name him as iREP ( REP offering iPod ). He tells you, " give me 5, 10, 15, 20 - 35 prescriptions to get an iPod ".

Here's the interpretation:

iREPS stands for

i - INH - 5mg/kg

R - Rifampicin - 10mg/kg

E - Ethambutol - 15mg/kg

P - Pyrazinamide - 20-35mg/kg

S - Streptomycin - 20-35mg/kg

Their dosages per kg are 5, 10, 15, 20-35, 20 - 35 respectively.

Which of these are Bacterocidal?

Of these, the ones that RIPS bacteria are the R, I, P, S.

To remember certain striking side effects see below:

INH - I Have Neuritis

Rifampicin - Red man syndrome

Ethambutol - Eye affected ( Retrobulbar neuritis )

Streptomycin - Song is difficult to hear ( Oto toxicity)

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Erb's and Klumpke's brachial palsies

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 8:07:32 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Erb's - Upper trunk ( C5, C6 ) {See the picture mnemonic above - imagine the '6' to resemble 'b' of erbs ; 's' resembles '5' }

Klumpke's - Lower Trunk ( C7, C8, T1 )

Remember 'E' comes before 'K' in alphabetical order, so Erb's is upper and Klumpke's lower trunk.

Now Klumpke's start with C7. Note that K-L-U-M-P-K-E is 7 letters.

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Blood group

Saturday, October 31, 2009, 9:21:56 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

O Negative (O -ve) blood group is universal dONor

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Wegener's Granulomatosis

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 8:07:17 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Wegener's granulomatosis affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the kidney. As depicted in the visual mnemonic, URTI, LRTI, Epistaxis, Hemoptysis, Glomerulonephritis are few of the manifestations of this disease. It is C-ANCA positive. Treatment is with antibiotics, corticosteroid, Azathioprine, Cyclophosphamide etc.

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Kawasaki's Disease

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 8:06:53 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

This visual mnemonic gives you the clinical features of Kawasaki disease. Imagine a Child on Kawasaki bike with red lips, tongue, body rash with cervical lymphadenopathy having a heart thrash ( Coronary aneurysm ) seeing a beautiful nurse who has the treatment needed for him. Note that Kawasaki disease is C- ANCA +ve as painted on the bike. The clinical features are depicted as a song, which you can try to sing in the tune of Titanic's song, "my heart will go on...."

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Huntington's Chorea

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 8:06:04 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember the story : A Korean (Chorean) hunter, HUNTING 4 CROws to DATE a COW

Now, here's the facts: Huntington's Chorea gene is on ChROmosome 4

Pathology is in CAUDATE (COW DATE) nucleus

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Aortic regurgitation : Peripheral signs

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 7:51:14 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

This is a picture mnemonic which will help you remember the peripheral signs of Aortic regurgitation (AR) which is much talked about in the clinics.

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Cole - Cecil Murmur

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 7:49:48 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

COLe-Cecil murmur is heard in Aortic Incompetence in AxIlla.

Remember AIshwarya RAI ( Miss world, 1994 ) likes Coco-COLa

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Endodermal pouches

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 6:53:43 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Endodermal pouches form the following organs / glands:

You have 1 tongue and 2 tonsils

• So from Ventral part of 1st Endodermal pouch forms the tongue

• From ventral part of 2nd Endodermal pouch forms tonsils

From THIrd endodermal pouch forms THymus and Inferior parathyroid

Note that superior parathyroid and follicular C - cells of thyroid forms from the 4th endodermal pouch (The superior and more complicated one arises from the fourth)

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Ewings tumor

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 12:54:21 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The above picture gives mnemonic for Ewing's tumor. First let us analyse the picture. Note the chick and swelling of Diaphysis of Tibia with the onion. Chick says VAC VAC VAC VACA, VAC VAC VAC AV / CV. The chick has fat and hence PAS stain positive. Note the moon and star at the top, Radio streaming music and chick fluttering it's wings up and down to the music as represented by 2 arrow marks at the left side. See the melted snow below the bone and a blood vessel from the side ( left corner )

Now, this is what the picture says: Ewings - the chick with wings; Arises from Diaphysis, most common bone is Tibia. Seen in children as represented by the chick. Onion represents the onion peel appearance in X-rays. The wings going up and down ( arrows ) represent that the size of tumor increases and decreases ( H/O Exacerbations and remissions ). The moon & star represents the clinical feature that pain is worse at night. Radio represents that the tumor is extremely radiosensitive - therefore melts like snow. Spread is by blood vessels and lymphatics. And what the chick says is the chemotherapy regimen - VAC ( Vincristine, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide ), VACA ( VAC + Actinomycin ), AV alternating with CV.

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Anatomical snuff box

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 12:52:32 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

To remember the structures of anatomical snuffbox, look at your right hand and extend your thumb. You see three prominent tendons. The tendon in between is a brevis tendon - Extensor policis brevis. The tendon that meets it from the extensor surface is therefore extensor policis longus. The remaining tendon going in different direction of Extensor Policis Brevis is Abductor Policis Longus. Note that the longus goes parallel and brevis converges on both ends.

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Time period to stop certain drugs before surgery

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 6:49:25 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Aspirin: stop 1 week before surgery (Remember 'A' is the 1st alpahabet)

Lithium: stop 2 weeks before surgery (Remember the alphabet 'L' is formed by 2 straight lines)

MAO-A irreversible inhibitors: 3 weeks (Remember, turn 'M'clockwise, you get something like '3'; Alternatively MAO has 3 letters)

Estrogen pills: 4 weeks ( 'E' is formed by 4 straight lines)

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Carpal Tunnel

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 12:50:29 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember the picture to memorise the structures passing through the carpal tunnel and those passing superficial to it.

Structures passing through the carpal tunnel:

MediAN nerve (policeMAN) - Compression causes carpal tunnel syndrome

Flexor POLICis longus (POLICe jeep)

FDS, FDP (FD = Fixed Deposit in piggy bank)

Radial & ulnar Bursa (piggy Bank)

• Structures passing superficial to carpal tunnel

PALMaris LONGus (LONG PALM tree)

Cutaneous branch of MediAN Nerve (boy = small MAN; Big policeMAN was MediAN nerve, so small man represents cutaneous branch)

UlNar nerve (Umen = woman)

Cutaneous br. of UlNar nerve (small Umen = small woman = represented by girl in the picture)

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DDH - Facts and associations

Saturday, October 24, 2009, 12:49:37 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The picture mnemonic will give you facts and associations of Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH)

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Clonorchis sinensis

Wednesday, October 21, 2009, 8:23:49 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The 'C's of Clonorchis sinensis :

Also called Chinese liver fluke Causes the following:

Cholangio carcinoma

Ca Pancreas


Cirrhosis Liver


Cyprinoid fish is the intermediate host

Definite host are fish eaters - Cat, Dog, Man

The infective form is enCysted metaCerCaria

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Diabetes mellitus

Friday, October 16, 2009, 5:25:08 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

About Type I DM - ( Notice that Roman one 'I' looks like English alphabet capital 'I' )

Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)

Insulin antibodies present

Insulitis in Islet cells

It follows that Type II DM is Non Insulin dependant DM.

Also remember I is LESS than II, therefore:

IDDM incidence is LESS ( Only 10% of diagnosed diabetics )

IDDM is seen at an younger age < 30yrs ( age is LESS)

IDDM patients are thin ( LESS body weight )

For more medical mnemonics visit

Contents of LJ Medium

Thursday, October 15, 2009, 9:57:59 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember the picture to memorise the contents of LJ Medium ( Imagine making the special LJ Bull's eye with salt, green chilly and Pepper added )

• Coagulated hen's eggs

• Malachite green (Represented by green chilly)

• Mineral salt

• Asparaginase (Represented by PeppeR)

Asperger's syndrome

Monday, October 12, 2009, 6:11:28 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember the 'A's and 'SPE' of A-SPE-rger's

Adam (Male) child

Absent delay in language development

Absent delay in cognition

Absent mental retardation

SPEech SPared

For more medical mnemonics visit

Named tests for Ulnar & Median nerve

Saturday, October 10, 2009, 6:17:01 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

EGawa test is for ULnar nerve and so is FROMents test. (Remember EGULFROM - ? Email from gulf :-)

PEn test (OPPOnens test) and POinting index test MEdian nerve. (Remember OPPOsite ME)

For more medical mnemonics visit

H. pylori

Thursday, October 08, 2009, 11:27:29 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember the LMN: H. pylori is ......



Negative gram staining

Also remember the C's

Choclate agar / Campylobacter media

Catalase +ve

CLO test +ve (= Urease breath test)

CAG is virulent cytotoxin associated gene, VAC is VACulating cytotoxin associated gene

Culture is more sensitive for diagnosis

For more medical mnemonics visit

Charcot's triad

Tuesday, October 06, 2009, 5:33:01 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Charcot's triad is seen in Wernicke's encephalopathy, which is seen in alcholics.

Remember an alcholic who goes to the beautiful tourist spot in India GOA; He drinks, drinks, drinks and get Wernick's encephalopathy

So remember, the GOA of Charcot's triad:

Global confusion



For more medical mnemonics visit


Friday, October 02, 2009, 9:12:01 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Bleeding time gives Platlet response ( Remember BP )

Clotting time gives idea about Coagulation pathway ( Remember CC )

Also remember the following about Prothrombin Time (PT) and Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT):

PTT - Intrinsic and common pathway

PT - Extrinsic and common pathway

( Remember this by imagining that Peter is going to take part in a Tea drinking contest. To be IN to the contest Peter must drink two Teas (TT) - PTT gives idea about INtrinsic and common pathway. If Peter drinks only one T, he is OUT = Extrinsic and common pathway represented by PT )

Kerly Lines

Thursday, October 01, 2009, 6:41:55 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Kerly A, B and C lines are found in Pulmonary edema

Kerly A - seen at lung Apex

Kerly B - seen at Base - Most common

Kerly C - seen Centrally

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Saturday, October 03, 2009, 7:07:34 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Higher (= Bigger) frequencies are at Base of the cochlear coil

(For Hindi knowing people: Bada frequencies at Base)

For more medical mnemonics visit

CTEV - Order of correction in conservative treatment

Tuesday, September 29, 2009, 7:25:24 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

CTEV treated conservatively should be corrected in the following order, else the complication is Rocker bottom foot.

The order of correction: ( Remember All India Exam - AIE)

First correct - Adduction

Secondly correct - Inversion

Thirdly correct - Equinus

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Somatostatin actions

Monday, September 28, 2009, 12:09:11 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Somatostatins inhibits G4TIP:

Growth hormone



Gastric acid



Pancreatic enzyme

Embryology of ear ossicles

Saturday, September 26, 2009, 12:57:07 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Maleus and Incus forms from mesoderm of I arch

Stapes from Second arch.

Vestibular apparatus

Friday, September 25, 2009, 11:39:34 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Vestibular apparatus has Cristae and Macula. CristAe detects Angular acceleration and MacuLa Linear acceleration.

Supination & Pronation, Plantar and Dorsiflexion

Wednesday, September 23, 2009, 8:25:16 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

SUPination of forearm means to hold your palms so as to recieve the SoUP. (Opposite movement is Pronation)

PLANTar flexion of foot means the movement to squish a PLANT with your foot. (The opposite movement is Dorsiflexion)

For more medical mnemonics visit

Innervation of quadriceps and toe extensors

Friday, September 18, 2009, 9:38:07 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Patellar tendon is innervated by L4 ( remember that quadriceps is made by 4 Long muscles )

Toe extensors are innervated by L5 ( remember the 5 Little toes )

For more medical mnemonics visit

Few signs and tests in orthopaedics

Thursday, September 17, 2009, 8:03:27 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• LudlOFF sign : Avulsion of lesser trochanter ( Lesser trochanter has come OFF )

• ADson's test is for cervical rib / thoracic outlet syndrome ( Remember ADDed rib )

• ALLI's test is for CDH ( Remember ALLICe )

For more medical mnemonics visit

Fever with Rash

Tuesday, September 15, 2009, 8:44:10 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Number of days after onset of fever that rash will appear:

Remember: Really Sick Children Must Take No Exercise.

1 Day - Rubella

2 Days - Scarlet fever ( Also in Smallpox )

3 Days - Chickenpox

4 Days - Measles

5 Days - Typhus, rickettsia (variable)

6 Days - Nothing

7 Days - Enteric fever

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Vitamins and Hypervitaminosis

Monday, September 14, 2009, 8:06:44 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, K (Remember FADEK)

Hypervitaminosis A causes Anomalies (teratogenicity)

Hypervitaminosis E causes necrotising Enterocolitis

Hypervitaminosis K causes Kernicterus due to hemolysis

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Drugs that can be administered through endotracheal route

Sunday, September 13, 2009, 2:30:29 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Drugs that can be administered through ENdotracheAL route:

Remember EN---------AL





Alternative mnemonics: ALiEN or LEAN or LANE, whichever you prefer, you can remember.

For more medical mnemonics visit

H1N1 mnemonics

Saturday, September 12, 2009, 9:55:07 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

In H1N1, antibodies to 'N' modifies iNfection ( and antibodies to 'H' neutralises the virus - 'H' Hits Virus . Remember HiV)

Antibodies to this virus:

• appears in 1 week

• reaches maximum level in 2 weeks

• drop to pre-infection levels in 2-3 months

(Remember 1, 2, 3 )

For more medical mnemonics visit

Diaphragmatic openings

Wednesday, September 09, 2009, 6:22:03 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember VOA - Voice Of America:

Venacaval opening - at level T8

Oesophageal opening - at level T10

Aortic opening - at level T12

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Foramen Ovale

Sunday, September 06, 2009, 9:45:20 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Foramen ovale transmits MALE:

Mandibular nerve

Accessory meningeal artery

Lesser petrosal nerve

Emissary vein

For more medical mnemonics visit


Saturday, September 05, 2009, 8:03:56 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Aminoacids passed in urine of Cystinuria patient:

Remember COLA in urine:





For more medical mnemonics visit

Meninges of brain

Friday, September 04, 2009, 2:56:18 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Which are the meningeal coverings?

Remember PAD covers the brain (From inside to out):

PIa mater - Innermost

Arachnoid membrane

DUra mater - oUtermost

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Plummer Vinson Syndrome

Monday, August 31, 2009, 7:45:16 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Plummer Vinson syndrome is also known as Patterson Kelly syndrome

Post cricoid web and

Poor iron level (Anemia) is seen.

Precancerous condition.

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Who can order Exhumation?

Thursday, August 27, 2009, 7:31:40 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

EXhuMAtaion can be ordered by EXecutive MAgistrate ( Also called first class magistrate )

For more medical mnemonics visit

Seronegative arthritis

Tuesday, August 25, 2009, 7:20:31 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

'S' and 'F's of Seronegative arthritis:

Subcutaneous nodules - Absent

Sacroilitis is present

Factor ( RA Factor ) - Absent

Family history is present

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Picture Mnemonic - Causes of Polyneuropathy

Saturday, August 29, 2009, 4:32:44 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Causes of Polyneuropathy are marked in red. Read the story behind the picture shown:

The hero Mr. Guillain Barre is Diabetic (Remember D.D.D - Diabetes, Diptheria, Dapsone). He is researching on AIP (Acute intermittent porphyria). Mr. GB is a Christian (vinCRISTINe)- note him wearing a cross).

His CAR is parked outside (CARbon tetrachloride & CARcinoma).

Note the things in his room - Fan (PHENytoin), a big mosquito out to suck blood (Represents Chloroquine). On his table is a glass of water - it contains Arsenic.

His Daughter (represents Hereditary cause), in a night dress, stained with ANILINE DYE, is bringing something from the kitchen in a pan of LEAD. The poor girl has been suffering from HYPOTHYROIDISM for quite a few years. Mr GB is so busy with his research that doesnot have time to eat and has developed Nutritional Deficiency.

For more medical mnemonics visit

Dum Dum bullet

Friday, August 21, 2009, 9:34:04 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Dum Dum Bullet is a bullet which fragments extensively on striking. Remember one dumb bullet goes Dum Dum Dum Dum into many pieces.

Thursday, August 27, 2009, 7:38:25 PM
Submitted by Mr. Frank





Add the last word "fragments" to complete the associations.

For more medical mnemonics visit

LFT : SGOT vs SGPT, Direct BR vs Indirect BR

Monday, August 24, 2009, 8:34:30 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)


SGOT is elevated in alcholic hepatitis.

I always get confused between the two. Here's how to remember: When you drink alcOHOL, you get hepatitis and your liver gets HOLes. So there are more HOLEs in SGOT - That's why SGOT is present in mitOchOndria and cytOsOl. SGPT is present only in cytosol.

To remember SGOT = AST and SGPT = ALT, strike out the common letters on both sides. You get O = S and P = L. Now remember "The OS (operting system) of your life gets corrupted with alchol". Remember OS for O=S --> SGOT = AST.

The other confusion is between Direct and Indirect bilirubin. Which is more? The level of Indirect is more - remember the number of letters in 'Indirect' are also more as compared to 'Direct'. Indirect = Unconjugated BR. ( Note that both have prefixes ). Therfore, Direct = Conjugated BR.

For more medical mnemonics visit

Milestones in Pediatrics

Sunday, August 23, 2009, 7:47:48 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Child draws a circle at 3 years, cross at 4 years, square at 5 years and triangle at 6 years.

I think that the visual mnemonic is self explanatory. Start from head ( Circle ), imagine the ears to be '3'. Put them together and remember that child draws circle at 3 yrs. After 3, remember what the child draws at 4,5 and 6 yrs by coming down from the top of the figure. After head, you see the cross necklace - at 4 yrs. Come down further, imagine the body to be a square ( at 5 yrs ). The frock represents triangle which child draws at 6 yrs.

For more medical mnemonics visit

Antemortem drowning

Wednesday, August 19, 2009, 10:06:00 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

DiAtoms are found in Drowning Antemortem

For more medical mnemonics visit

Iron content in body and in milk

Tuesday, August 18, 2009, 10:21:58 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Total quantity of " I R O N " in human body is 4 gms (= number of letters in the word "IRON") Iron content in Milk = 0.4 mg

Kartagener's Syndrome

Monday, August 17, 2009, 2:54:37 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

To remember Kartagener's syndrome read it as CART-A-GENERal - The story of General transporting his sweetHEART ( wife ) in a cart. The sweetHEART is sitting to his right ( Represents DEXTROCARDIA - HEART to right ). Note that General has a red stuffy nose and still smoking smoking, he has SINUSITIS and BRONHIECTASIS. Note the grass through which he drives is moving as the cart passes. The grass resembles CILIA ( ABNORMAL CILIARY MOVEMENTS are seen in this syndrome ). The couple has no children to drive the cart ( Represents STERILITY ). So the features of this syndrome are:




Abnormal ciliary movement


For more medical mnemonics visit

Milard Gubler Syndrome

Monday, August 17, 2009, 2:45:52 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Which cranial nerves are affected in MILLARD GUBLER syndrome?

They are 6th & 7th cranial nerves - Just count the number of letters in Millard (=7) & Gubler (=6)

Criggler Najjar Syndrome, Gilbert syndrome

Monday, August 17, 2009, 2:45:13 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

What is the problem in Criggler NaJJar & Gillbert syndrome?

The defect is in CoNJuGatIon

For more medical mnemonics visit

Reiter's Syndrome

Monday, August 17, 2009, 2:44:09 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember CUP :




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Behcet's syndrome

Monday, August 17, 2009, 2:43:35 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

What is Behcet's syndrome

Remember BOOG

Behcet's is Oro - Oculo - Genital syndrome

For more medical mnemonics visit

Fallot's Triad, Tetrad and Pentad

Saturday, August 15, 2009, 12:45:24 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

To remember the Fallots, read this story along with the picture mnemonic :

Characters in the story and what they represent:

Ant - ASD

Parrot - Pulmonary stenosis

Rabbit - Right Ventricular Hypertrophy ( RVH )

Owl - Overriding of Aorta

Vulture - VSD

'3' represents Fallot's Triad, '4' - Tetrology of Fallot, '5' - Fallot's Pentad

The story: The Ant, Parrot and Rabbit ( 3 ) were living happily. Vulture and Owl are coming at 4 o'clock - an announcement informed them. The Ant was afraid that it would be eaten and went away in fear. At 4 o'clock the Vulture and Owl came. So there was the Owl, Vulture, Parrot and Rabbit ( 4 ) living together now. The newcomers came to know about the Ant. They promised that they won't eat the ant. So the Ant came back and all the 5 (Owl, Ant, Vulture, Parrot and Rabbit ) lived happily ever after.

Now, just substitute what the animals / insects / birds originally represent and you will remember the Fallots.

For more medical mnemonics visit

Deformity in malunited supracondylar fracture

Friday, August 14, 2009, 8:31:39 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

3 static deformities of cubitus varus in malunited supracondylar fracture ( Gun stock deformity ) :

Remember PHC (Primary Health Centre) or P HR CT ( Pay for High Resolution CT )

Posterior Displacement

Horizontal Rotation ( = HR )

Coronal Tilt ( = CT )

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Common cold

Friday, August 14, 2009, 8:17:42 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

What is the incubation period of common cold?

2 days - remember you have 2 nostrils.


Sunday, August 16, 2009, 11:29:59 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

GiArdiAsis most commonly seen in blood group A, Achlorhydria, Abuse with cAnAbis, IgA deficiancy, AIDS. Other causes without mnemonics - Chronic Pancreatitis, Malnutrition.

For more medical mnemonics visit

Echinococcus granulosus

Thursday, August 13, 2009, 8:44:35 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Echinococcus granulosus - Remember EDC

• Echinococcus

Dog tapeworm is the common name

Casoni's test is used. Remember CID - Casoni's Intra Dermal test

• Treatment is MAPS - Mebendazole, Albendazole, Praziquantel, Surgery

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Number of Bones

Wednesday, August 12, 2009, 12:59:04 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• Total number of bones in human body = 206. ( See the picture - bon(e) looks like 206 if altered as seen in the picture; Still you will have to use your imagination a little )

• Total no. of bones in Face = Fourteen

If you didnot understand the picture mnemonic, see the video mnemonic.

For more medical mnemonics visit

Mode of infection of Hepatitis A and E

Monday, August 10, 2009, 8:05:17 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Hepatitis A and E spread by oro - fAEcal route.

For more medical mnemonics visit

Surgery for malunited Colle's

Monday, August 10, 2009, 8:03:20 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Corrective osteotomies for malunited Colle's :

CampbeLL's - Lateral wedge osteotomy

FernanDes - Dorsal wedge osteotomy

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Congenital heart disease producing cyanosis

Sunday, August 09, 2009, 10:54:55 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

They all begin with 'T' :

Tetrology of Fallot

Transposition of great vessels

Truncus arteriosis

Tricuspid atresia

Total pulmonary anomalous venous return

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Polio vaccines

Saturday, August 08, 2009, 9:54:39 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

SalK = Killed Polio vaccine

OraL (Sabin) = Live Polio vaccine

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Brachial Plexus

Friday, August 07, 2009, 8:11:23 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Lateral cord

Remember LML vespa scooter

• Lateral pectoral n.

• Musculocutaneous n.

• Lateral root of median n.

Medial cord

Remember My Mother Made Me Ugly

• Medial pectoral n.

• Medial root of medin n.

• Medial cutaneous n. of arm

• Medial cutanoeus n. of forearm

• Ulnar n.

Posterior cord

Remember STAR

• Subscapular n. (Upper and Lower Subscapular N.)

• Thoracodorsal n.

• Axillary n.

• Radial n.

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Active and passive immunity

Friday, August 07, 2009, 7:23:14 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

When you take a vaccine, which immunity do you get - Active or passive ?

Passive because you Payfor the vaccine, get Pricked and it's Painful.

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Thursday, August 06, 2009, 10:24:11 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The immunoglobulins are IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD ( Remember GAMED )

First Immunoglobulin to appear is IgM - iMMediate

Immunoglobulin with Maximum Molecular weight - IgM = Millionaire molecule; Also, Maximum sedimentation coifficient is for IgM

IgA Activates Alternative complement pathway

Major serum immunoglobulin is IgG - maGor

IgG crosses placenta ( Gestation )

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Thursday, August 06, 2009, 10:20:49 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

MHC-I associated with CD8 and MHC-II associated with CD4 ( Remember I x 8 = II x 4 )

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Prevalance of disease

Sunday, August 02, 2009, 9:57:00 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Prevalance = Incidence x Duration

Remember PID

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Wednesday, August 05, 2009, 10:15:10 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Indications of abdominal hysterectomy:

Remember TOMB

Trauma: Uterine perforation, cervical tear

Obstructive: Remember HARM

• Hydatidiform mole

• Atonic PPH

• Rupture uterus

• Morbid adherent placenta

Malignancy: Carcinoma of ovary / cervix / endometrium, Chorio carcinoma, uterine sarcoma.

Benign: Remember ABCDEF

• Adenomyosis

• Benign ovarian tumors



• Endometriosis

• Fibroids, tubo ovarian mass.

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Types of Abortion

Wednesday, August 05, 2009, 10:04:18 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

INcomplete and INevitable abortions have cervical os open (difference is that in the former the uterine size is less than the period of amennorhoea.

In Missed abortion, the fetal Mortality has occured (in threatened abortion the fetus is alive)

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Hymenolepis nana

Monday, August 03, 2009, 10:05:19 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Hymenolepis nana is also known as dwarf tapeworm.

Remember this - Somebodythought that the name Hymenolepis is a giant and asked you, "is Hymenolepis a giant tape worm" - You said, " Na Na , it's a dwarf".

Alternatively remember HP Deskjet printers - Hymenolepis nana = Dwarf tapeworm

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Ossification centres around elbow

Saturday, August 01, 2009, 10:41:48 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Ossification centres around elbow appear in the following order:

Remember CRMTOL or CaRaMel TOffEE 1-3-5-7-9

Capitellum - 1 yr

Radial head - 3 yrs

Medial epicondyle - 5 yrs

Trochlea - 7 yrs

Olecranon - 9 yrs

Lateral epicondyle = External Epicondyle

Note: An alteranate mnemonic is CRITOE, where I = Internal Epicondyle.

You can imagine a child putting Caramel toffee into his mouth with elbow flexed.

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First Rank ( Positive symptoms ) of Schizophrenia

Thursday, July 30, 2009, 7:50:10 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

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The Spleen

Thursday, July 30, 2009, 1:22:25 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Spleen measures 1 x 3 x 5 inches, weighs 7 ounces, lies between 9 - 11 ribs.

Remeber 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 of spleen.

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Shoulder Dislocation

Wednesday, July 29, 2009, 10:18:45 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Read the story for remembering facts about Shoulder Dislocation:

Dr. BRISTOW ( DCH ) had his shoulder dislocated following a fall, when going to BANK to PUT money. He had a H/O shoulder dislocation while working in MILITARY long back. His friend Dr. KOCHER and his TEAM reached on the spot and reduced the dislocation.

Now here's the interpretation of the story:

DCH - Duga's test, Callway's test, Hamilton's Ruler tests are tests / signs of shoulder dislocation.

KOCHER's manoeuvre is used to reduce the dislocated shoulder - The procedure is TEAM - in this order Traction, External rotation, Adduction, Medial rotation.

Military stands for "Regimental Badge sign" which has to be assessed, if present indicates Axillary nerve injury.

Surgeries for recurrent shoulder dislocation are BRISTOW's, PUTtiplatt's, BANKart's.

What is Hillsach's lesion?

Hillsachs is a depression in Humeral Head

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Sensory supply of C6

Tuesday, July 28, 2009, 2:40:36 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

How do test the sensory supplied by C6? See the picture - it gives sensory supply of C6

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Causes of Tubal Pregnancy

Saturday, July 25, 2009, 11:20:04 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

3 important causes of tubal ectopics: STD, IUCD, PID or STD, IUCD, PID

Either remember that all these end with 'D' or remember SIPping a straw which is a 'tube'

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Giant Cell Tumor (GCT)

Sunday, July 26, 2009, 9:50:10 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Es of GCT:

Epiphyseal tumor

Eccentric location

Enneking staging used for Benign GCT

Egg shell crackling may be elicited

Enbloc currettage is the treatment

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Treatment of acute sprains

Sunday, July 26, 2009, 9:46:45 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Acute sprains are treated with RICE:





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Litzman and Naegele's obliquity

Saturday, July 25, 2009, 11:14:48 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

(Remember: PLAN)

Posterior asynclytism = Litzman obliquity;

Anterior = Naegele's obliquity

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Pulled Elbow

Saturday, July 25, 2009, 10:49:40 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Pulled elbow is seen in Pediatric population ( 2-5 yrs ). Clinical feature - Forearm is in Pronation.

Till what age can you expect pulled ELBOW - Count the number of letters in elbow = 5 --> 5 yrs.

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Tractions in Orthopaedics

Friday, July 24, 2009, 8:13:00 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• BUck's traction - Skin traction ( Remember: BUS )

• RUSsel's traction - for Trochanteric fracture ( Remember: RUST )

• Crutchfield traction - for Cervical spine injury

• Dunlops Traction - for SupraCondylar fracture ( Remember: DiSCo )

• Bryant's and Gallows tractions - for Shaft Femur fractures ( BSF, GSF - Boys School Federation, Girls School Federation :-) Tell me if you get a better mnemonic )

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Named fractures in Orthopeadics

Friday, July 24, 2009, 7:55:48 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• pott's fracture = bimaleolar fracture ( Remember bp, imagine reflection of 'p' in water is 'b' )

• COtton's fracture = TRIMaleolar fracture ( Remember COTRIMoxazole )

• March Fracture: Fracture of Base of shaft of 2nd metatarsal ( Remember - 2 Soldiers MARCHed To Manglore [ 2nd-Shaft-Meta-Tarsal-Base ]).

• Jone's Fracture: Avulsion fracture of base of 5th Metatarsal. ( Remember: Jone V (5) had Miliary TB [Jone's-5th-Meta-Tarsal-Base]). Alternatively remember aVulsion 5th. V stands for 5 in Roman.

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Common types of Dislocations

Friday, July 24, 2009, 7:43:58 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• PateLLa dislocates Laterally

• Most common Shoulder dislocation type is anterior; Most commonly Hip and Elbow dislocation is posterior ( Remember Ladies first, She - anterior, HE - posterior )

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Sprengel's shoulder

Friday, July 24, 2009, 7:37:44 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

SprEngel's ShouldEr means Scapula Elevated congenitally

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Function of introssei

Friday, July 24, 2009, 7:35:05 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Function of Palmar introssei is ADduction; Dorasal introssei - ABduction ( Remember: PAD - DAB )

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Anatomy of Thoracic duct

Thursday, July 23, 2009, 11:13:13 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Thoracic duct lies between Azygous vein and Oesophagous

Remember: The DUCK is between two gooses (duck = thoracic duct) 2 gooses = azyGOOSE and esophaGOOSE (see picture)

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Muscles supplied by Radial nerve

Thursday, July 23, 2009, 9:24:20 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Radial nerve innervates the BEST :





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Innervation of Extra Occular muscles

Wednesday, July 22, 2009, 10:43:26 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember LR6SO4 :

Lateral Rectus is supplied by 6th cranial nerve,

Superior Oblique by 4th

and the rest of extraoccular muscles by occulomotor.

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Carpal bones

Thursday, July 23, 2009, 9:21:34 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The carpal ( wrist) bones are ( From lateral side of proximal row):

Remember: Sitha Looks Too Pretty, Try To Catch Her









Note: The first 4 bones are from lateral side of proximal row and next 4 from lateral side of distal row.

Again are you confused regarding the order of 'T's i.e. Triquetrum, Trapezium and Trapezoid ?For this, remember that the THIRD bone in mnemonic is TRIquetrum. Now to resolve between the next two carpal bones, note that both of them has "Trapez---". So take the first non recurring letter in these two; they are I (trapezIum) and O (trapezOid). Now in the alphabetical order I comes before O, So Trapezium comes before Trapezoid in the above mnemonic.

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Lengths of intestines

Wednesday, July 22, 2009, 11:15:00 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• Lengths of first 3 parts of the digestive system after the stomach i.e. Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum:

To remember the lengths , remember the story of a tiger, which ate a dozen doctors who had gone to the forest for a picnic, including the famous Doctor Indiana Jones. News reported in Radio: One (tiger) Ate 12 (1-8-12) , including Dr. Indiana Jones referring to 1, 8 and 12 feets, which are the respective lengths of Duodenum, Ileum and Jejunum.

• Lengths of 4 parts of Duodenum ( Remember : 1-2-3-4 = 2-3-4-1 ) :

1st part = 2 inches

2nd part = 3"

3rd part = 4"

4th part = 1"

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Garre osteomyelitis

Tuesday, July 21, 2009, 8:05:34 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Sclerotic osteomyelitis of Garrie is a chronic or Subacute osteomyelitis. Affects Subperiosteal region of bone. Seen in the Small (Children and young adults)

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Scrotum layers

Wednesday, July 22, 2009, 10:46:32 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Layers of scrotum from outside in:

Remember - Some Dirty Englishmen Called It Testis :



External spermatic fascia,


Internal spermatic fascia,


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Wednesday, July 22, 2009, 10:38:48 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

• Formula for adult (permanant) teeth:

2 Incisors, 1 Canine, 2 Premolars, 3 Molars (Remember: In India Crooked Politicial Pimps Make Maximum Money)

• Milk teeth:

First molar erupts between first year to 1 1/2 years; Second molar by second year .

When does the CANIne tooth erupt? It asks, "Can I erupt between 1 & 2 yrs (1 1/2 -- 2 years)

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Drugs causing photosensitivity

Monday, July 20, 2009, 7:33:07 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember Photosensitivity causing drugs are PQRST:

Phenothiazine, Psoralen,




Tetracyclines, Thiazines

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Beta receptor actions

Monday, July 20, 2009, 7:28:37 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Beta - 1 primarily acts on heart,

Beta - 2 on airways.

Remember: You have 1 heart and 2 lungs

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Monday, July 20, 2009, 7:24:46 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Mechanism of action is by inhibiting the synthesis of Dihydrofolic acid

Dosage of DapsONE is 100 mg/day - ONE hundreD mg per Day

Treatment of Dermatitis herpetiformis = Dapsone

Dapsone is used to treat many Dermatological conditions (A to Z : Acne, Behcets, Kaposi's Sarcoma, Lupus erythematosus, Leprosy, Mycetoma, Pemphigus, Pyoderma gangrenosum, Rhinosporidiosis, spider bites etc etc !!!)

Side effects of Dapsone : blooD ( methemoglobinemia, hemolysis and anemia), Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome ( Mainly Dermatological manifestations - Mononucleosis like rash, skin eruptions, etc), Hepatotoxity etc.

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Monday, July 20, 2009, 7:04:37 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Which are the pyrimidines?

Remember: Pyrimidines are CUT from purines




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Monday, July 20, 2009, 6:59:47 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Name a LOW potency steroid = H(IGH)ydrocortisone

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Monday, July 20, 2009, 6:58:39 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

In a tablet of Co-trimoxazole the ratio of Trimethoprim : Sulphamethoxazole is 1:5 ( Imagine "T" look like "1" and "S" like "5" ). It is given 2 times daily ( remember that it is a combination of 2 drugs)

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Nafrelin, Goserelin, Busrelin

Monday, July 20, 2009, 6:57:50 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Nafrelin is given Intra Nasally, Gosrelin is given Subcutaneous ( Remember Goose Skin ), Busrelin is given by Both these routes

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Hormones from Ovary and Testis

Sunday, July 19, 2009, 10:17:17 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Ovary secretes Relaxin, Inhibin, Progesterone, Estrogen. ( Remember ovaries are RIPE with hormones ).

Testis secretes testosterone, inhibin, and mullerian-inhibiting hormones. ( Remember that testis make Mr. TIM strong ).

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About Adrenal gland and Hormones

Sunday, July 19, 2009, 10:30:20 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Layers of Adrenal cortex (From outermost to innermost) : Remember GFR - Glomerular, Fascicular, Reticular. Products of the adrenal cortex, from outer to inner layer: Remember Salt, sugar, sex; "the deeper you go, the sweeter it gets." (Salt = aldosterone, sugar = glucocorticoids, sex = sex hormones)

The adrenal Medulla secretes stress hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine in response to stress in MEN ( Medulla - Epinephrine - Norepinephrine make the acronym MEN)

Adrenal Cortex secretes hormones which start with either of letters A or C - They are: Androgen, Aldosterone, Cortisol.

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Hypersensitivity reactions

Sunday, July 19, 2009, 10:08:02 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)


Remember ACID

Type I ----- Anaphylaxis

Type II ---- Cytotoxic-mediated

Type III --- Immune-complex

Type IV --- Delayed hypersensitivity

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Normal Differential Count Values

Sunday, July 19, 2009, 10:06:05 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

WBC Differential Count (DC) :

Remember :"Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas" and "60, 30, 6, 3, 1"

Neutrophils 60%

Lymphocytes 30%

Monocytes 6%

Eosinophils 3%

Basophils 1%

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Sodium and Potassium

Sunday, July 19, 2009, 10:01:45 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Sodium is EXtracellular, Potassium INtracellular (SEX, PIN)

What are normal values of Sodium and Potassium in serum ? They are 135 - 145 and 3.5 - 5.5 respectively. I used to get confused between these values when I first heard them. This is how I remembered it: Sodium is EXTRAcellular - has EXTRA values, so the larger value is for it - that is 1-3-5, the first three odd numbers and for the smaller potassium, take only second & third odd numbers i.e. 3-5, make it to 3.5

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Essential amino acids

Sunday, July 19, 2009, 2:05:22 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

REMEMBER- Mr. Thomas Parker Very ILL, Admitted in Hospital on THuRsday











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Stye and Chalazion

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 1:34:13 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

STYE is Hordeolum externum (STAY OUT) ; Moll's gland / Zeis gland affected

Chalazion is Hordeolum INternum - Chronic Inflammatory granuloma of MEiBOMian glands (Remember : See (C) me in Bombay)

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Austin flint murmur

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 12:03:56 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Austin FlInt murmur is heard in Aortic Incompetence

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Saturday, July 18, 2009, 11:58:21 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Sensory (Wernick's) and Motor (Broca's) aphasias :

WErnicke's area - Sensory speech area is situated in Temporal lobe. (Remember: WEST ).

BROca's motor area cause BROken speech is in the Frontal cortex. (Remember: BF = Bollywood Film)

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Parkinsonism - Clinical features

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 11:50:53 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Clinical diagnosis of Parkinsonism:

Tremor, Rigidity, Akinesia, Postural abnormality (Remember: life is in TRAP with Parkinsonism)

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Meningitis - Causitive organism

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 11:48:26 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Which organisms cause meningitis in a BabE (baby) ?

Group B Streptococcus & E.coli

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Saturday, July 18, 2009, 11:45:02 AM
shajilkpd[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Argyll-Robertson Pupil : Remember A-R-P, P-R-A : Accomodation Reflex Present, Pupilary Reflex Absent. Pupillary reflex absent due to damage at Pretectal area. Also called the "Prostitute's pupil" (Syphilitic pupil)

What is HIPpus: It is alternate RYTHMic contractions and dialatation of the pupil. (Remember, the pupil plays HIP HOP to RYTHM)

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Enteric fever

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 11:41:41 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

The investigations to be done in enteric fever: (Remember BASU)

1st week - Blood,

2nd week - Agglutination(WIDAL),

3rd week - Stool,

4th week - Urine

Incubation periods

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 11:41:19 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Incubation periods:

Diptheria : 1-7 days

Pertusis : 7-14 days

Chickenpox : 14-21 days

{Remember: DPC instead of DPT}

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Osler's and Janeway's nodes

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 11:30:12 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

oSler'as nodes are found in Subacute bacterial endocarditis

jAneway's-Acute bacterial endocarditis

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The Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias (MEN)

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 11:23:35 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Each of the MENs is a disease of two or three letters plus a feature.

MEN I is a disease of 3 P's ( Pituitary, Parathyroid, and Pancreas) plus adrenal cortex

MEN II is a disease of 2 C's ( Carcinoma of thyroid and Catacholamines [pheochromocytoma]) plus parathyroid for MEN IIa or mucocutaneous neuromas for MEN IIB

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Branchial Cyst

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 10:40:44 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Branchial cyst (begins with "B" , which is the second english alphabet) - Arises from the second branchial cleft

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Meckel’s diverticulum

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 10:29:50 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Rule of 2’s: -

2 inches long,

2 feet from the ileocecal valve,

2% of the population,

commonlly presents in the first 2 years of life

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Troisier's sign & Trousseau's sign

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 10:25:01 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

TroIsier's is Virchows node +ve ( IV line)

Trousseau's sign: Thrombophlebitis migrans

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Basal & Squamous cell Carcinoma

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 10:22:22 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

BAsal cell carcinoma is also called RODent ulcer and arises from Pylosebacious Adnexia {Remember BARODA & BAPA}.

Squamous cell carcinoma arises from the Prickle cell layer of Malphigian layer of skin {Remember: SPM - Social and Preventive Medicine}

Complications of Undescended Testis

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 10:20:01 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Remember ASEPTIC:



Epididymo orchitis,



Indirect inguinal hernia,


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Signs in Thyroid opthalmopathy

Saturday, July 18, 2009, 10:16:48 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Kocher's sign - Starring look (Imagine a football coach starring at his player - Starring Kocher!)

STeLLwag's sign - Infrequent blinking (STiLL lids)

DaRLymple sign - LiD Retraction

Joffroy's sign - Absent Wrinkles (Remeber JAWs) or alternatively decreased Forhead (F for joFFroy's) wrinkles on upgaze.

Moebius sign - Weakness of convergence (M
W) or MCC - Mobieus Can't Converge

Von Graefe's - Lid Lag (Remember that some people think that ViaGra is used to improve the Love Life)

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Friday, July 17, 2009, 7:39:51 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Herbert's pit are found in Trachoma. Classification is McCallan's Classification

Remember herberTs piTs TraChoMa McCallans


Corneal scars

Denseness of corneal scars increases in the order Nebula < Macula < Leukoma (i.e. L,M,N in reverse order)

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Nystagmus with ear stimulation

Thursday, July 16, 2009, 8:53:18 PM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

When left ear irrigated with warm water, nystagmus occurs to left side and when cold water is used, it occurs to right side. Remember COWS - Cold Opposite, Warm Same side

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True Rosette and Pseudorosette

tRue Rosette - flexneR witersteineR in Retinoblastoma

PsUeDO Rosettes - HOMEr wRIGHT in Neuro / Medullo blastoma ( U DO your HOMEwork RIGHT by cracking your brain using neuro/medullo)

The Sphingolipidoses

Wednesday, July 15, 2009, 11:11:45 AM
[email protected] (Dr. Shajil)

Enzyme defects in various Sphingolipidoses:

GaUChers Disease: beta GlUCosidase

Fabry's : ALpha gALactosidase

Nieman Pick : Sphingomyelinase (Remember Need P(f)or Speed)

Tay-Sachs : Hexosaminidose (Remember TSH)

About Pheochromocytoma

Remember the rule of 10s:

Remember 10% BCEFM

10% Bilateral

10% Calcified

10% Extra adrenal

10% Familial

10% Malignant

Root values

• Reflexes - root values

one, two, buckle my Shoes (Ankles are fitted into shoes, so ANKLE JERK- S1, S2)

Three, four, clean the fLoor (While cleaning the floor you rest on your knees, so KNEE JERK- L3,L4)

Five, six, pick up sticks (Pick up sticks using biceps, so BICEPS REFLEX- C5,C6; Same as Supinator jerk)

Seven, eight, open the gate (use your triceps - so TRICEPS REFLEX- [C6], C7,C8