Psychiatry Mnemonics

Source:  Psychiatry Mnemonics    Tag:  psychomotor retardation symptoms


Psychiatry Mnemonics


Male erectile dysfunction (MED): biological causes  MED:
Medicines(propranalol, methyldopa, SSRI, etc.)
Ethanol
Diabetes mellitus


Middle adolescence (14-17 years): characteristics  HERO:
Heterosexual crushes/  Homosexual Experience
Education regarding short term benefits
Risk taking
Omnipotence
· And there is interest in being a Hero (popular).


Autistic disorder: features  AUTISTICS:
Again and again (repetitive behavior)
Unusual Abilities
Talking (language) delay
IQ subnormal
Social development poor
Three years onset
Inherited component [35% concordance]
Cognitive impairment
Self injury


Male Erectile Dysfunction (MED): drugs causing it " STOP
erection":
SSRI (fluoxtine)
Thioridazone
methyld Opa
Propranalol


Premature ejaculation: treatment 2 S's:
SSRIs [eg: fluoxitime]
Squeezing technique [glans pressure before climax]
· More detail with 2 more S's:
Sensate-focus excercises [relieves anxiety]
Stop and start method [5-6 rehearsals of stopping stimulation before
climax]


Narcolepsy: symptoms, epidemiology  CHAP:
Cataplexy
Hallucinations
Attacks of sleep
Paralysis on waking
· Usual presentation is a young male, hence "chap".


Reinforcement schedules: variable ratio  SLOT machines
show  SLOwes Textinction.


Depression: major episode DSM-IV criteria · First, of course
depressed mood is one. Then:
SIG E CAPS:
Sleep disturbance
Interest loss
Guilt (or intense worthlessness)
Energy loss
Concentration loss
Appetite changes
Psychomotor agitation or retardation
Suicidal tendency


HM: this classic patient's lesion  HM had  Hippocampus
Missing.
Hippocampus and surrounding areas were removed surgically: prevented formation
of new memories.


Cluster personality disorders Cluster  A Disorder = 
A
typical. Unusual and eccentric.
Cluster  B Disorder =  Beast. Uncontrolled wildness.
Cluster  C Disorder =  Coward [avoidant type],  Compulsive
[obsessive-compulsive type], or  Clingy [dependent type].


Gain: primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary  Primary: 
P
atient's  Psyche improved.
Secondary:  Symptom  Sympathy for patient.
Tertiary:  Therapist's gain.


Depression: major episode characteristics  SPACE DIGS:
Sleep disruption
Psychomotor retardation
Appetite change
Concentration loss
Energy loss
Depressed mood
Interest wanes
Guilt
Suicidal tendencies


Impotence causes  PLANE:
Psychogenic: performance anxiety
Libido: decreased with androgen deficiency, drugs
Autonomic neuropathy: impede blood flow redirection
Nitric oxide deficiency: impaired synthesis, decreased blood pressure
Erectile reserve: can't maintain an erection


Sleep stages: features  DElta waves during  DEepest
sleep (stages 3 & 4, slow-wave).
d REa M during  REMsleep.


AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC): features  AIDS:
Atrophy of cortex
Infection/  Inflammation
Demyelination
Six months death


Kubler-Ross dying process: stages " Death  Always
Brings  Great  Acceptance":
Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Grieving
Acceptance


REM: features  REM:
Rapid pulse/  Respiratory rate
Erection
Mental activity increase/  Muscle paralysis


Depression: symptoms  BAD CRISES:
Behavioural change (slowing down or agitation)
Appetite change (weight loss or weight gain in the young)
Depressed look (looking down)
Concentration decrease (does not do serial 7s well)
Ruminations (constant negative thoughts, hopelessness good indicator of
suicidality)
Interest (reduced interest in what is normally pleasurable)
Sleep change (insomnia or hypersomnia, sleeping early, waking up at
night, waking up feeling tired)
Energy change (fatigue)
Suicide


Yalom's therapeutic factors  ICU CAGES:
I still hope (installation of hope)
I'm part of information (imparting information)
Imitate behavior
Interpersonal learning
Corrective recapitulation of primary
Universality
Catharsis
Altruism
Group cohesiveness (glue)
Existential factors
Socializing techniques development


Borderline personality: traits  PRAISE:
Paranoid ideas
Relationship instability
Affective instability/  Abandonment fears/  Angry outbursts
Impulsiveness/  Identity disturbance
Suicidal behaviour/  Self-harming behaviour
Emptiness


Substance dependence: features (DSM IV) " WITHDraw 
IT
":
· 3 of 7 within 12 month period:
Withdrawal
Interest or  Important activities given up or reduced
Tolerance
Harm to physical and psychosocial known but continue to use
Desire to cut down, control
Intended time, amount exceeded
Time spent too much


Dementia: main causes  VITAMIN D VEST:
Vitamin deficiency (B12, folate, thiamine)
Intracranial tumour
Trauma (head injury)
Anoxia
Metabolic (diabetes)
Infection (postencephalitis, HIV)
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Degenerative (Alzheimer's, Huntington's, CJD, etc)
Vascular (multi infarct dementia)
Endocrine (hypothyroid)
Space occupying lesion (chronic subdural haematoma)
Toxic (alcohol)


Mania: cardinal symptoms  DIG FAST:
Distractibility
Indiscretion (DSM-IV's "excessive involvement in pleasurable activities")
Grandiosity
Flight of ideas
Activity increase
Sleep deficit (decreased need for sleep)
Talkativeness (pressured speech)


Depression criteria/symptoms  A SAD FACES:
Appetite, weight changes
Sleep changes
Anhedonia
Dysphoria (low mood)
Fatigue
Agitation (psychomotor)
Concentration
Esteem
Suicide


Mania: diagnostic criteria Must have 3 of  MANIAC:
Mouth (pressure of speech)/  Moodl
Activity increased
Naughty (disinhibition)
Insomnia
Attention (distractability)
Confidence (grandiose ideas)


Neuroleptic side effects onset The rule of 4's:
Dystonia:  4 hours- 4 days
Akathesia:  4 days- 40 days
Extrapyramidal symptoms:  4 days- 4 weeks
Tardive dyskinesia:  4 months (greater than)
· Note that tardive is obviously the latest one to happen (tardive=tardy/late).
· Note that the first letters of these four classic symptoms spell "DATE", and
this mnemonic is the dates when they occur.


Anxiety disorders: physical illnesses mimicking them " Physical
Health  Hazards  That  Appear  Panciky":
Phaeochromocytoma
Hyperthyroidism
Hypoglycaemia
Temporal lobe epilepsy
Alcohol
Paroxysmal arrhythmias


Ganser syndrome: key diagnostic feature The word " Ganser"
is  close to but not quite the word " Answer".
Ganser's syndrome is when patient gives an answer that is close to, but not
quite. For example 2+2=5.


Conversion disorder: etiology  Conversion disorder: 
convert
 a  conflict to a symptom.


Hallucinations: hypnogogic vs. hypnopompic definition "Hypno gogic
go to sleep":
Hypnogogic hallucinations arise when go to sleep, hypnopompic arise when awaken.


Depression: major depression criteria  DEAD SWAMP:
Depressed mood most of the day
Energy loss or fatigue
Anhedonia
Death thoughts (recurrent), suicidal ideation or attempts
Sleep disturbances (insomnia, hypersomnia)
Worthlessness or excessive guilt
Appetite or weight change
Mentation decreased (ability to think or concentrate, indecisiveness)
Psychomotor agitation or retardation


Schizophrenia: negative features 4 A's:
Ambivalence
Affective incongruence
Associative loosening
Autism


Erikson's developmental stages "The sad tale of Erikson
Motors":
· The stages in order by age group:
Mr.  Trust and  MsTrust had an  auto they were a shamed
of. She took the  initiative to find the  guilty party. She found
the  industry was  inferior. They were making cars with  dents
[identity] and  rolling  fuses [role confusion]. Mr.  N.T. Macy
[intimacy]  isolated the problem,  General TVT  absorbed the
cost. In the end, they found the tires were just  gritty and the should
have used  de- spare!


Conduct disorder vs. Antisocial personality disorder  Conduct
disorder is seen in  Children.
Antisocial personality disorder is seen in  Adults.


Parasomnias: time of onset  SLeep terrors and  SLeepwalking
occur during  SLow-wave sleep (stages 3 & 4).
Nightma RE occurs during  REM sleep (and is  REMembered).


Depression: symptoms and signs (DSM-IV criteria)  AWESOME:
Affect flat
Weight change (loss or gain)
Energy, loss of
Sad feelings/  Suicide thoughts or plans or attempts/  Sexual
inhibition/  Sleep change (loss or excess)/  Social withdrawal
Others (guilt, loss of pleasure, hopeless)
Memory loss
Emotional blunting


Biological symptoms in psychiatry  SCALED:
Sleep disturbance
Concentration
Appetite
Libido
Energy
Diurnal mood variation


Psychiatric review of symptoms " Depressed  Patients
Seem  Anxious,  SClaim  Psychiatrists":
Depression and other mood disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder,
dysthymia)
Personality disorders (primarily borderline personality disorder)
Substance abuse disorders
Anxiety disorders (panic disorder with agoraphobia, obssessive-compulsive
disorder)
Somatization disorder, eating disorders (these two disorders are combined
because both involve disorders of bodily perception)
Cognitive disorders (dementia, delirium)
Psychotic disorders (schizophrenia, delusional disorder and psychosis
accompanying depression, substance abuse or dementia)


Depression  UNHAPPINESS:
Understandable (such as bereavement, major stresses)
Neurotic (high anxiety personalities, negative parental upbringing
Hypochondriasis
Agitation (usually organic causes such as dementia
Pseudodementia
Pain
Importuniing (whingeing, complaining)
Nihilistic
Endogenous
Secondary (ie cancer at the head of the pancreas, bronchogenic cancer)
Syndromal


Depression: melancholic features (DSM IV)  MELANcholic:
Morning worsening of symptoms/ psycho Motor agitation, retardation/
early  Morning wakening
Excessive guilt
Loss of emotional reactivity
ANorexia/  ANhedonia