Cancer via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader

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Cancer via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader

mPGES-1 in prostate cancer controls stemness and amplifies epidermal growth factor receptor-driven oncogenicity
1:28:49 AM Finetti, F., Terzuoli, E., Giachetti, A., Santi, R., Villari, D., Hanaka, H., Radmark, O., Ziche, M., Donnini, S.

There is evidence that an inflammatory microenvironment is associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), although the determinants of intrinsic inflammation in PCa cells are not completely understood. Here we investigated whether expression of intrinsic microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) enhanced aggressiveness of PCa cells and might be critical for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated tumour progression. In PCa, overexpression of EGFR promotes metastatic invasion and correlates with a high Gleason score, while prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been reported to modulate oncogenic EGFR-driven oncogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that mPGES-1 in human prostate tissues is correlated with EGFR expression in advanced tumours. In DU145 and PC-3 cell lines expressing mPGES-1 (mPGES-1SC cells), we demonstrate that silencing or 'knock down' of mPGES-1 (mPGES-1KD) or pharmacological inhibition by MF63 strongly attenuates overall oncogenic drive. Indeed, mPGES-1SC cells express stem-cell-like features (high CD44, ?1-integrin, Nanog and Oct4 and low CD24 and ?6-integrin) as well as mesenchymal transition markers (high vimentin, high fibronectin, low E-cadherin). They also show increased capacity to survive irrespective of anchorage condition, and overexpress EGFR compared to mPGES-1KD cells. mPGES-1 expression correlates with increased in vivo tumour growth and metastasis. Although EGFR inhibition reduces mPGES-1SC and mPGES-1KD cell xenograft tumour growth, we show that mPGES-1/PGE2 signalling sensitizes tumour cells to EGFR inhibitors. We propose mPGES-1 as a possible new marker of tumour aggressiveness in PCa.



Identification of occult tumors by whole-specimen mapping in solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma
1:28:49 AM Park, S. Y., Jung, Y.-S., Ryu, C. H., Lee, C. Y., Lee, Y. J., Lee, E. K., Kim, S.-K., Kim, T. S., Kim, T. H., Jang, J., Park, D., Dong, S. M., Kang, J.-G., Lee, J. S., Ryu, J.

We undertook this study to estimate an accurate incidence and spread patterns of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of solitary PTC by using whole-specimen mapping of all specimens after a total thyroidectomy. Enrolled prospectively in this whole-thyroid mapping study are 82 consecutive patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of solitary PTC. All thyroidectomy specimens were serially sectioned in 2 mm thickness and whole-thyroid mapping was carried out for additional foci of occult PTC. The frequencies of occult lesions detected in the whole and contralateral lobe were determined, and clinicopathologic factors associated with multifocality were assessed. Whole-thyroid mapping revealed 66 occult PTC lesions missed by preoperative ultrasound in 37 (45.1%) of the 82 patients. The great majority (92.5%) of the occult PTC was smaller than 3 mm in size and 25 patients (30.5%) had contralateral lesions. We found that the male sex was an independent predictor of multifocality (odds ratio (OR), 3.00; 95% CI, 1.11-8.14), adjusting for preoperative findings. Analysis with pathologic parameters showed that the male sex (OR, 5.03; 95% CI, 1.68-15.08) and extrathyroidal extensions (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.03-8.95) were associated with multifocal PTC. However, none of the clinicopathologic factors evaluated predicted contralateral PTC. Our study demonstrates the diagnostic limitations of ultrasound for the detection of multifocal PTC and the need to consider the possibility of occult lesions in the management of solitary PTC, especially in male patients.



Characteristics and treatment of patients with G3 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
1:28:49 AM Heetfeld, M., Chougnet, C. N., Olsen, I. H., Rinke, A., Borbath, I., Crespo, G., Barriuso, J., Pavel, M., O'Toole, D., Walter, T., other Knowledge Network members

Data on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) G3 (well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET G3) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC)) are limited. We retrospectively study patients with NET G3 and NEC from eight European centers. Data examined included clinical and pathological characteristics at diagnosis, therapies and outcomes. Two hundred and four patients were analyzed (37 NET G3 and 167 NEC). Median age was 64 (21-89) years. Tumor origin included pancreas (32%) and colon-rectum (27%). The primary tumor was resected in 82 (40%) patients. Metastatic disease was evident at diagnosis in 88% (liver metastases: 67%). Median Ki-67 index was 70% (30% in NET G3 and 80% in NEC; P<0.001). Median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 23 (95% CI: 18-28) months and significantly higher in NET G3 (99 vs 17 months in NEC; HR=8.3; P<0.001). Platinum-etoposide first line chemotherapy was administered in 113 (68%) NEC and 12 (32%) NET G3 patients. Disease control rate and progression free survival (PFS) were significantly higher in NEC compared to NET G3 (P<0.05), whereas OS was significantly longer in NET G3 (P=0.003). Second- and third-line therapies (mainly FOLFIRI and FOLFOX) were given in 79 and 39 of NEC patients; median PFS and OS were 3.0 and 7.6 months respectively after second-line and 2.5 and 6.2 months after third-line chemotherapy. In conclusion, NET G3 and NEC are characterized by significant differences in Ki-67 index and outcomes. While platinum-based chemotherapy is effective in NEC, it seems to have limited value in NET G3.



A nude mouse model of obesity to study the mechanisms of resistance to aromatase inhibitors
1:28:49 AM Schech, A., Yu, S., Goloubeva, O., McLenithan, J., Sabnis, G.

Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer progression. Breast cancer patients who are overweight or obese or have excess abdominal fat have an increased risk of local or distant recurrence and cancer-related death. Hormone depletion therapies can also cause weight gain, exacerbating the risk for these patients. To understand the effect of obesity on hormone-dependent human breast cancer tumors, we fed ovariectomized athymic nude mice a diet containing 45% kcal fat and 17% kcal sucrose (high fat sucrose diet (HFSD)), 10% kcal fat (low fat diet (LFD)), or a standard chow diet (chow). The mice fed the HFSD developed metabolic abnormalities consistent with the development of obesity such as weight gain, high fasting blood glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance. These mice also developed hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. The obese mice also had a higher tumor growth rate compared to the lean mice. Furthermore, the obese mice showed a significantly reduced responsiveness to letrozole. To understand the role of obesity in this reduced responsiveness, we examined the effect of insulin on the growth of MCF-7Ca cells in response to estrogen or letrozole. The presence of insulin rendered MCF-7Ca cells less responsive to estrogen and letrozole. Exogenous insulin treatment of MCF-7Ca cells also resulted in increased p-Akt as well as ligand-independent phosphorylation of ER?. These findings suggest that diet-induced obesity may result in reduced responsiveness of tumors to letrozole due to the development of hyperinsulinemia. We conclude that obesity influences the response and resistance of breast cancer tumors to aromatase inhibitor treatment.



Fine mapping of the uterine leiomyoma locus on 1q43 close to a lncRNA in the RGS7-FH interval
1:28:49 AM Aissani, B., Zhang, K., Mensenkamp, A. R., Menko, F. H., Wiener, H. W.

Mutations in fumarate hydratase (FH) on chromosome 1q43 cause a rare cancer syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), but are rare in nonsyndromic and common uterine leiomyoma (UL) or fibroids. Studies suggested that variants in FH or in a linked gene may also predispose to UL. We re-sequenced 2.3 Mb of DNA spanning FH in 96 UL cases and controls from the multiethnic NIEHS-uterine fibroid study, and in 18 HLRCC-associated UL probands from European families then selected 221 informative SNPs for follow-up genotyping. We report promising susceptibility associations with UL peaking at rs78220092 (P=7.0x10-5) in the RGS7-FH interval in African Americans. In race-combined analyses and in meta-analyses (n=916), we identified promising associations with risk peaking upstream of a non-protein coding RNA (lncRNA) locus located in the RGS7-FH interval closer to RGS7, and associations with tumor size peaking in the distal phospholipase D family, member 5 (PLD5) gene at rs2654879 (P=1.7x10-4). We corroborated previously reported FH mutations in nine out of the 18 HLRCC-associated UL cases and identified two missense mutations in FH in only two nonsyndromic UL cases and one control. Our fine association mapping and integration of existing gene profiling data showing upregulated expression of the lncRNA and downregulation of PLD5 in fibroids, as compared to matched myometrium, suggest a potential role of this genomic region in UL pathogenesis. While the identified variations at 1q43 represent a potential risk locus for UL, future replication analyses are required to substantiate our observation.



Development of pheochromocytoma in ceramide synthase 2 null mice
1:28:49 AM Park, W.-J., Brenner, O., Kogot-Levin, A., Saada, A., Merrill, A. H., Pewzner-Jung, Y., Futerman, A. H.

Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia, for which mutations in ~15 disease-associated genes have been identified. We now document the role of an additional gene in mice, the ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) gene. CerS2, one of six mammalian CerS, synthesizes ceramides with very-long (C22-C24) chains. The CerS2 null mouse has been well characterized and displays lesions in several organs including the liver, lung and the brain. We now demonstrate that changes in the sphingolipid acyl chain profile of the adrenal gland lead to the generation of adrenal medullary tumors. Histological analyses revealed that about half of the CerS2 null mice developed PCC by ~13 months, and the rest showed signs of medullary hyperplasia. Norepinephrine and normetanephrine levels in the urine were elevated at 7 months of age consistent with the morphological abnormalities found at later ages. Accumulation of ceroid in the X-zone was observed as early as 2 months of age and as a consequence, older mice displayed elevated levels of lysosomal cathepsins, reduced proteasome activity and reduced activity of mitochondrial complex IV by 6 months of age. Together, these findings implicate an additional pathway that can lead to PCC formation, which involves alterations in the sphingolipid acyl chain length. Analysis of the role of sphingolipids in PCC may lead to further understanding of the mechanism by which PCC develops, and might implicate the sphingolipid pathway as a possible novel therapeutic target for this rare tumor.



Non-small cell lung cancer cell survival crucially depends on functional insulin receptors
1:28:49 AM Frisch, C. M., Zimmermann, K., Zillessen, P., Pfeifer, A., Racke, K., Mayer, P.

Insulin plays an important role as a growth factor and its contribution to tumor proliferation is intensely discussed. It acts via the cognate insulin receptor (IR) but can also activate the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). Apart from increasing proliferation, insulin might have additional effects in lung cancer. Therefore, we investigated insulin action and effects of IR knockdown (KD) in three (NCI-H292, NCI-H226 and NCI-H460) independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. All lung cancer lines studied were found to express IR, albeit with marked differences in the ratio of the two variants IR-A and IR-B. Insulin activated the classical signaling pathway with IR autophosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, activation of MAPK was observed in H292 cells, accompanied by enhanced proliferation. Lentiviral shRNA IR KD caused strong decrease in survival of all three lines, indicating that the effects of insulin in lung cancer go beyond enhancing proliferation. Unspecific effects were ruled out by employing further shRNAs and different insulin-responsive cells (human pre-adipocytes) for comparison. Caspase assays demonstrated that IR KD strongly induced apoptosis in these lung cancer cells, providing the physiological basis of the rapid cell loss. In search for the underlying mechanism, we analyzed alterations in the gene expression profile in response to IR KD. A strong induction of certain cytokines (e.g. IL20 and tumour necrosis factor) became obvious and it turned out that these cytokines trigger apoptosis in the NSCLC cells tested. This indicates a novel role of IR in tumor cell survival via suppression of pro-apoptotic cytokines.



Potent effect of adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA targeting ribonucleotide reductase large subunit M1 on cell viability and chemotherapeutic sensitivity to gemcitabine in non-small cell lung cancer cells
12:53:07 AM
Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015
Source:European Journal of Cancer
Author(s): Yoshimasa Tokunaga, Dage Liu, Jun Nakano, Xia Zhang, Kazuhito Nii, Tetsuhiko Go, Cheng-long Huang, Hiroyasu Yokomise
BackgroundRibonucleotide reductase large subunit (RRM1) is the main enzyme responsible for synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides used during DNA synthesis. It is also a cellular target for gemcitabine (GEM). Overexpression of RRM1 is reportedly associated with resistance to GEM and the poor prognosis for many types of malignant tumours. Aim of the present study is to establish gene therapy against RRM1-overexpressing tumours.MethodAn adenoviral vector that encoded a short hairpin siRNA targeting the RRM1 gene (Ad-shRRM1) was constructed. Two RRM1-overexpressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lines, MAC10 and RERF-LC-MA, were used. Finally, a human tumour xenograft model in nude mice was prepared by subcutaneously implanting tumours derived from RERF-LC-MA cells.ResultsAd-shRRM1 effectively downregulated RRM1 mRNA and protein in both types of NSCLC cells and significantly reduced the percentage of viable cells as detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (p<0.005). Caspase 3/7 analysis revealed that transfection with Ad-RRM1 increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in culture containing either type of RRM1-overexpressing cell (p<0.001). Treatment with Ad-shRRM1 exerted a potent antitumour effect against the RRM1-overexpressing RERF-LC-MA xenografts (p<0.05). Furthermore, Ad-shRRM1-mediated inhibition of RRM1 specifically increased sensitivity to gemcitabine of each type of RRM1-overexpressing tumour cell. Combination treatment with Ad-shRRM1 and GEM exerted significantly greater inhibition on cell proliferation than Ad-shRRM1 or GEM treatment alone.ConclusionRRM1 appeared to be a promising target for gene therapy, and Ad-shRRM1 had strong antitumour effects, specifically anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects, against NSCLC cells that overexpressed RRM1. Combination therapy with Ad-shRRM1 and GEM may become a new treatment option for patients with NSCLC.



Different outcomes for relapsed versus refractory neuroblastoma after therapy with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG)
12:53:07 AM
Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015
Source:European Journal of Cancer
Author(s): Margaret J. Zhou, Michelle Y. Doral, Steven G. DuBois, Judith G. Villablanca, Gregory A. Yanik, Katherine K. Matthay
Background131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) is a targeted radiopharmaceutical with significant activity in high-risk relapsed and chemotherapy-refractory neuroblastoma. Our primary aim was to determine if there are differences in response rates to 131I-MIBG between patients with relapsed and treatment-refractory neuroblastoma.MethodsThis was a retrospective cohort analysis of 218 patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma treated with 131I-MIBG at UCSF between 1996 and 2014. Results were obtained by chart review and database abstraction. Baseline characteristics and response rates between relapsed patients and refractory patients were compared using Fisher exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and differences in overall survival (OS) were compared using the log-rank test.ResultsThe response rate (complete and partial response) to 131I-MIBG-based therapies for all patients was 27%. There was no difference in response rates between relapsed and refractory patients. However, after 131I-MIBG, 24% of relapsed patients had progressive disease compared to only 9% of refractory patients, and 39% of relapsed patients had stable disease compared to 59% of refractory patients (p=0.02). Among all patients, the 24-month OS was 47.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.9-53.9%). The 24-month OS for refractory patients was significantly higher at 65.3% (95% CI 51.8-75.9%), compared to 38.7% (95% CI 30.4-46.8%) for relapsed patients (p<0.001).ConclusionsAlthough there was no significant difference in overall response rates to 131I-MIBG between patients with relapsed versusrefractory neuroblastoma, patients with prior relapse had higher rates of progressive disease and had lower 2-year overall survival after 131I-MIBG compared to patients with refractory disease.



A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer
12:53:07 AM
Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015
Source:European Journal of Cancer
Author(s): Robert F. Wolff, Steve Ryder, Alberto Bossi, Alberto Briganti, Juanita Crook, Ann Henry, Jeffrey Karnes, Louis Potters, Theo de Reijke, Nelson Stone, Marion Burckhardt, Steven Duffy, Gillian Worthy, Jos Kleijnen
BackgroundProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in males. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of radiotherapy and other non-pharmacological management options for localised prostate cancer was undertaken.MethodsA search of thirteen databases was carried out until March 2014. RCTs comparing radiotherapy (brachytherapy (BT) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)) to other management options i.e. radical prostatectomy (RP), active surveillance, watchful waiting, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), or cryotherapy; each alone or in combination, e.g. with adjuvant hormone therapy (HT), were included.Methods followed guidance by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Cochrane Collaboration. Indirect comparisons were calculated using the Bucher method.ResultsThirty-six randomised controlled trials (RCTs, 134 references) were included. EBRT, BT and RP were found to be effective in the management of localised prostate cancer. While higher doses of EBRT seem to be related to favourable survival-related outcomes they might, depending on technique, involve more adverse events, e.g. gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. Combining EBRT with hormone therapy shows a statistically significant advantage regarding overall survival when compared to EBRT alone (Relative risk 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.30). Aside from mixed findings regarding urinary function, BT and radical prostatectomy were comparable in terms of quality of life and biochemical progression-free survival while favouring BT regarding patient satisfaction and sexual function.There might be advantages of EBRT (with/without HT) compared to cryoablation (with/without HT). No studies on HIFU were identified.ConclusionsBased on this systematic review, there is no strong evidence to support one therapy over another as EBRT, BT and RP can all be considered as effective monotherapies for localised disease with EBRT also effective for post-operative management. All treatments have unique adverse events profiles. Further large, robust RCTs which report treatment-specific and treatment combination-specific outcomes in defined prostate cancer risk groups following established reporting standards are needed. These will strengthen the evidence base for newer technologies, help reinforce current consensus guidelines and establish greater standardisation across practices.



Concurrent Etoposide, Steroid, High-dose Ara-C and Platinum chemotherapy with radiation therapy in localised extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type
12:53:07 AM
Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015
Source:European Journal of Cancer
Author(s): Jean-Marie Michot, Renaud Mazeron, Alina Danu, Julien Lazarovici, David Ghez, Anna Antosikova, Christophe Willekens, Ali N. Chamseddine, Veronique Minard, Peggy Dartigues, Jacques Bosq, Patrice Carde, Serge Koscielny, Stéphane De Botton, Christophe Ferme, Theodore Girinsky, Vincent Ribrag
PurposeRadiation combined with chemotherapy has recently been proposed to treat patients with localised extranodal natural killer (NK)/T lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type. However, the modalities of the chemoradiotherapy combination and drug choices remain a matter of debate. We conducted a concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) study with the ESHAP (Etoposide, Steroid, High-dose Ara-C and Platinum) regimen.MethodsAn induction phase with two upfront courses of CCRT delivering a 40Gy dose of radiation concurrently with two cycles of the ESHAP chemotherapy regimen, followed by a consolidation phase with 2-3 cycles of ESHAP chemotherapy alone.ResultsThirteen patients with localised ENKTL nasal type were enrolled between January 2005 and December 2014. The median age was 62years. Ten and three patients had Ann Arbor stage IE and IIE disease, respectively. They all completed the induction CCRT phase. A median of two consolidation ESHAP cycles were delivered. During consolidation, 8/13 (62%) patients had a reduction in the number of chemotherapy cycles or reduced chemotherapy doses, due to haematologically adverse events. The other five patients (38%) received the full number of ESHAP cycles of chemotherapy scheduled without a dose reduction. All but one patient (92%) experienced grade 3-4 haematological toxicity. The main non-haematological grade 3-4 toxicity was mucositis in 6/13 (46%) patients. All but one patient (92%) achieved a complete remission. Two-year overall survival was 72%.ConclusionsWith optimal management of the specific toxicities induced by this treatment modality, CCRT with the ESHAP regimen yielded high efficacy against localised ENKTL, nasal type.



Metastatic medulloblastoma in adults: Outcome of patients treated according to the HIT2000 protocol
12:53:07 AM
Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015
Source:European Journal of Cancer
Author(s): André O. von Bueren, Carsten Friedrich, Katja von Hoff, Robert Kwiecien, Klaus Müller, Torsten Pietsch, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Peter Hau, Martin Benesch, Joachim Kuehl, Rolf D. Kortmann, Stefan Rutkowski
BackgroundDue to the rarity of metastatic medulloblastoma in adults, knowledge about the efficacy and toxicity of intensified chemotherapy and radiotherapy is limited.Patients and methodsAdults with disseminated medulloblastoma registered in the HIT2000 trial as observational patients and treated according to one of two different treatment regimens were analysed. The sandwich strategy MET-HIT2000AB4 consists of postoperative chemotherapy, hyperfractionated craniospinal radiotherapy, and maintenance chemotherapy; while the HIT'91 maintenance strategy consists of postoperative craniospinal radiotherapy, and maintenance chemotherapy.ResultsTwenty-three patients (median age: 30.7years), diagnosed from November 2001 to July 2009, and treated in 18 institutions in Germany and Austria, were eligible. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 3.99years. The 4-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS)±standard error (SE) were 52%±12% and 91%±6%, respectively. The survival was similar in both treatment groups (HIT'91 maintenance strategy, n=9; MET-HIT2000AB4 sandwich strategy, n=14). Patients with large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma relapsed and died (n=2; 4-year EFS/OS: 0%) and OS differed compared to patients with classic (n=11; 4-year EFS/OS: 71%/91%) and desmoplastic medulloblastoma (n=10; 4-year EFS/OS: 48%/100%), respectively (p=0.161 for EFS and p=0.033 for OS).Treatment-induced toxicities consisted mainly of neurotoxicity (50% of patients, ? °II), followed by haematotoxicity and nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The professional outcome appeared to be negatively affected in the majority of evaluable patients (9/10).ConclusionsTreatment of adults with metastatic medulloblastoma according to the intensified paediatric HIT2000 protocol was feasible with acceptable toxicities. EFS rates achieved by both chemotherapeutic protocols were favourable and appear to be inferior to those obtained in older children/adolescents with metastatic disease.



Xc inhibitor sulfasalazine sensitizes colorectal cancer to cisplatin by a GSH-dependent mechanism
12:39:21 AM Ming-zhe Ma, Gang Chen, Peng Wang, Wen-hua Lu, Chao-feng Zhu, Ming Song, Jing Yang, Shijun Wen, Rui-hua Xu, Yumin Hu, Peng Huang
Platinum-based chemotherapy such as cisplatin (CDDP) is a widely used treatment in a large spectrum of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC) [1-3]. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most commonly diagnosed malignancies and ranks as the third leading cause of cancer mortality for both genders worldwide [4,5]. Although surgical resection is a curative therapy in early stage, chemotherapy still remains an important regimen for patients diagnosed with advanced stage. However, a majority of cancer patients eventually relapse and develop drug resistance despite initial response to CDDP [6].


Copper improves the anti-angiogenic activity of disulfiram through the EGFR/src/VEGF pathway in gliomas
12:39:21 AM Yi Li, Shi-Yuan Fu, Li-Hui Wang, Fang-Yang Wang, Nan-Nan Wang, Qi Cao, Ya-Ting Wang, Jing-Yu Yang, Chun-Fu Wu
. Cu improves the antiangiogenic ability of disulfiram through EGFR/c-Src/VEGF pathway.


Avermectins Disrupt SIN3 Corepressor Function
12:36:18 AM Kwon, Y.-J., Petrie, K., Leibovitch, B. A., Zeng, L., Mezei, M., Howell, L., Gil, V., Christova, R., Bansal, N., Yang, S., Sharma, R., Ariztia, E. V., Frankum, J., Brough, R., Sbirkov, Y., Ashworth, A., Lord, C. J., Zelent, A., Farias, E., Zhou, M.-M., Waxman, S.

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) lacking estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors account for 10% to 20% of breast cancer and are indicative of poor prognosis. The development of effective treatment strategies therefore represents a pressing unmet clinical need. We previously identified a molecularly targeted approach to target aberrant epigenetics of TNBC using a peptide corresponding to the SIN3 interaction domain (SID) of MAD. SID peptide selectively blocked binding of SID-containing proteins to the paired ?-helix (PAH2) domain of SIN3, resulting in epigenetic and transcriptional modulation of genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To find small molecule inhibitor (SMI) mimetics of SID peptide, we performed an in silico screen for PAH2 domain-binding compounds. This led to the identification of the avermectin macrocyclic lactone derivatives selamectin and ivermectin (Mectizan) as candidate compounds. Both selamectin and ivermectin phenocopied the effects of SID peptide to block SIN3-PAH2 interaction with MAD, induce expression of CDH1 and ESR1, and restore tamoxifen sensitivity in MDA-MB-231 human and MMTV-Myc mouse TNBC cells in vitro. Treatment with selamectin or ivermectin led to transcriptional modulation of genes associated with EMT and maintenance of a cancer stem cell phenotype in TNBC cells. This resulted in impairment of clonogenic self-renewal in vitro and inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Underlining the potential of avermectins in TNBC, pathway analysis revealed that selamectin also modulated the expression of therapeutically targetable genes. Consistent with this, an unbiased drug screen in TNBC cells identified selamectin-induced sensitization to a number of drugs, including those targeting modulated genes. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(8); 1824-36. ©2015 AACR.



mTORC2 Inhibition Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Doxorubicin
12:36:18 AM Chen, B. W., Chen, W., Liang, H., Liu, H., Liang, C., Zhi, X., Hu, L.-q., Yu, X.-Z., Wei, T., Ma, T., Xue, F., Zheng, L., Zhao, B., Feng, X.-H., Bai, X.-l., Liang, T.-b.

mTOR is aberrantly activated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and plays pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. Rapamycin has been reported to exert antitumor activity in HCC and sensitizes HCC cells to cytotoxic agents. However, due to feedback activation of AKT after mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition, simultaneous targeting of mTORC1/2 may be more effective. In this study, we examined the interaction between the dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor OSI-027 and doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo. OSI-027 was found to reduce phosphorylation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 substrates, including 4E-BP1, p70S6K, and AKT (Ser473), and inhibit HCC cell proliferation. Similar to OSI-027 treatment, knockdown of mTORC2 induced G0-G1 phase cell-cycle arrest. In contrast, rapamycin or knockdown of mTORC1 increased phosphorylation of AKT (Ser473), yet had little antiproliferative effect. Notably, OSI-027 synergized with doxorubicin for the antiproliferative efficacy in a manner dependent of MDR1 expression in HCC cells. The synergistic antitumor effect of OSI-027 and doxorubicin was also observed in a HCC xenograft mouse model. Moreover, AKT was required for OSI-027-induced cell-cycle arrest and downregulation of MDR1. Our findings provide a rationale for dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitors, such as OSI-027, as monotherapy or in combination with cytotoxic agents to treat HCC. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(8); 1805-15. ©2015 AACR.



Oxaliplatin Chemoresistance
12:36:18 AM Martinez-Balibrea, E., Martinez-Cardus, A., Gines, A., Ruiz de Porras, V., Moutinho, C., Layos, L., Manzano, J. L., Buges, C., Bystrup, S., Esteller, M., Abad, A.

Oxaliplatin was the first platinum drug with proven activity against colorectal tumors, becoming a standard in the management of this malignancy. It is also considered for the treatment of pancreatic and gastric cancers. However, a major reason for treatment failure still is the existence of tumor intrinsic or acquired resistance. Consequently, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the appearance of this phenomenon to find ways of circumventing it and to improve and optimize treatments. This review will be focused on recent discoveries about oxaliplatin tumor-related resistance mechanisms, including alterations in transport, detoxification, DNA damage response and repair, cell death (apoptotic and nonapoptotic), and epigenetic mechanisms. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(8); 1767-76. ©2015 AACR.



Entinostat Inhibits Tumor-Initiating Cells
12:36:18 AM Schech, A., Kazi, A., Yu, S., Shah, P., Sabnis, G.

Mortality following breast cancer diagnosis is mainly due to the development of distant metastasis. To escape from the primary site, tumor cells undergo the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which helps them acquire a more motile and invasive phenotype. In our previous study, we showed that class I selective HDAC inhibitor entinostat reverses the EMT phenotype through reversal of epigenetic repression of E-cadherin. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of cells within a breast tumor may drive the metastatic outgrowth following escape from the primary site. These cells, termed tumor-initiating cells (TIC), represent a great threat to overall prognosis. They are critical in terms of drug resistance and tumor initiation at metastatic sites. Acquisition of EMT traits has also been shown to impart TIC phenotype to the cells, making EMT a "dual-threat" for prognosis. In the current study, we show that entinostat treatment can reduce the percentage of TIC cells from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Entinostat treatment was able to reduce the CD44high/CD24low cell population, ALDH-1 activity, as well as protein and mRNA expression of known TIC markers such as Bmi-1, Nanog, and Oct-4. Next, we inoculated MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with firefly luciferase (231/Luc) in mammary fat pad of NSG mice. The mice were then treated with entinostat (2.5 mg/kg/d), and tumor development and formation of metastasis were assessed by bioluminescence imaging. Treatment with entinostat significantly reduced tumor formation at the primary site as well as lung metastasis. As such, entinostat may help prevent development of distant metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(8); 1848-57. ©2015 AACR.



Small Molecule Inhibitor of Stat5a/b in Prostate Cancer and Leukemia
12:36:18 AM Liao, Z., Gu, L., Vergalli, J., Mariani, S. A., De Dominici, M., Lokareddy, R. K., Dagvadorj, A., Purushottamachar, P., McCue, P. A., Trabulsi, E., Lallas, C. D., Gupta, S., Ellsworth, E., Blackmon, S., Ertel, A., Fortina, P., Leiby, B., Xia, G., Rui, H., Hoang, D. T., Gomella, L. G., Cingolani, G., Njar, V., Pattabiraman, N., Calabretta, B., Nevalainen, M. T.

Bypassing tyrosine kinases responsible for Stat5a/b phosphorylation would be advantageous for therapy development for Stat5a/b-regulated cancers. Here, we sought to identify small molecule inhibitors of Stat5a/b for lead optimization and therapy development for prostate cancer and Bcr-Abl-driven leukemias. In silico screening of chemical structure databases combined with medicinal chemistry was used for identification of a panel of small molecule inhibitors to block SH2 domain-mediated docking of Stat5a/b to the receptor-kinase complex and subsequent phosphorylation and dimerization. We tested the efficacy of the lead compound IST5-002 in experimental models and patient samples of two known Stat5a/b-driven cancers, prostate cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The lead compound inhibitor of Stat5-002 (IST5-002) prevented both Jak2 and Bcr-Abl-mediated phosphorylation and dimerization of Stat5a/b, and selectively inhibited transcriptional activity of Stat5a (IC50 = 1.5?mol/L) and Stat5b (IC50 = 3.5 ?mol/L). IST5-002 suppressed nuclear translocation of Stat5a/b, binding to DNA and Stat5a/b target gene expression. IST5-002 induced extensive apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, impaired growth of prostate cancer xenograft tumors, and induced cell death in patient-derived prostate cancers when tested ex vivo in explant organ cultures. Importantly, IST5-002 induced robust apoptotic death not only of imatinib-sensitive but also of imatinib-resistant CML cell lines and primary CML cells from patients. IST5-002 provides a lead structure for further chemical modifications for clinical development for Stat5a/b-driven solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(8); 1777-93. ©2015 AACR.



Peloruside A Prevents Tumor Growth
12:36:18 AM Meyer, C. J., Krauth, M., Wick, M. J., Shay, J. W., Gellert, G., De Brabander, J. K., Northcote, P. T., Miller, J. H.

Peloruside A is a microtubule-stabilizing agent isolated from a New Zealand marine sponge. Peloruside prevents growth of a panel of cancer cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations, including cell lines that are resistant to paclitaxel. Three xenograft studies in athymic nu/nu mice were performed to assess the efficacy of peloruside compared with standard anticancer agents such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, and doxorubicin. The first study examined the effect of 5 and 10 mg/kg peloruside (QDx5) on the growth of H460 non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. Peloruside caused tumor growth inhibition (%TGI) of 84% and 95%, respectively, whereas standard treatments with paclitaxel (8 mg/kg, QDx5) and docetaxel (6.3 mg/kg, Q2Dx3) were much less effective (%TGI of 50% and 18%, respectively). In a second xenograft study using A549 lung cancer cells and varied schedules of dosing, activity of peloruside was again superior compared with the taxanes with inhibitions ranging from 51% to 74%, compared with 44% and 50% for the two taxanes. A third xenograft study in a P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI/ADR-RES breast tumor model showed that peloruside was better tolerated than either doxorubicin or paclitaxel. We conclude that peloruside is highly effective in preventing the growth of lung and P-glycoprotein-overexpressing breast tumors in vivo and that further therapeutic development is warranted. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(8); 1816-23. ©2015 AACR.



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