Symptoms of leukemia and types

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Symptoms of leukemia and types


Despite significant progress in various aspects of medicine during the twentieth century, it still holds a cancer sensitive locations in the consciousness of the public in terms of raising people 's feelings of fear and anxiety among many. In spite of the great progress in the treatment of cancers of the blood and lymphatic tumors in particular, are more than up to the progress that has happened in other tumors, and that is that these diseases were leading to the death of almost all before the sixties of the twentieth century, as can be cured most of the day at rates ranging between 25 to 90%, in spite of this considerable progress still tumors of the blood and lymph nodes cause panic and anxiety to many people and it is due to several reasons, including the fact that these diseases infect up the largest segment of young people, whether children or young people.

What is cancer, what are the cancers of the blood ?

It is known that cancer is a different species infect different organs and tissues of the body. Among these different types of so-called blood cancer which is a malignant disease that affects hematopoietic cells present in the bone marrow, which in itself is not a single disease but different types can be divided into four main sections differ in the means of treatment and also the amount of response to treatment, and this what Snfsalh later. In addition there lymphomas that can be considered also linked to cancers of the blood as lymphocytes and lymph nodes represent a single unit of blood cells and bone marrow (the product of the blood) .

In turn, lymphomas are divided into different diseases and can be considered a simplified manner is composed of three groups of diseases or satisfactory are Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma type of non- Hodgkin's disease, myeloma or multiple myeloma. Although this division observe biological and therapeutic differences between the various types minute, especially those that meet under the so-called lymph tumors of non- Hodgkin's type.

The cancer after diagnosis should determine the extent of its spread, and can be determined in a simplified deployment phases into three phases: the spread in the position of evolution, spread in an area of evolution, the spread of the year.

Pictures of leukemia

The treatment of any cancerous disease is today one of the three basic ways : heat therapy, radiation therapy, drug therapy (chemotherapy) has occurred during the past decades, significant progress has led to access to the full recovery of many types of cancer. And be cured in the case of certain types of cancer by surgical treatment primarily at the forefront of these types of blood cancers or malignant lymphoma as these mentioned diseases can be considered at all in the case of the spread, such as the spread of blood in the body.

General causes of cancer and leukemia in particular :

The causes for the emergence of a tendency to tumors :

1 genetic disorders :

It is known that there are genetic disorders makes a person vulnerable to the emergence of tumors most famous Down syndrome (Down Syndrome) or the so-called Mongolian children.

2 radiation exposure

3 radiotherapy and chemotherapy

After the use of radiation therapy in the tens of thousands of patients during the twentieth century has been scientifically proven to note that studies and then radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as his own cause in some cases, tumors of blood that are unrelated to the original tumor, which was the use of radiation therapy or chemotherapy for him.

4 Exposure to some chemicals

Of the reasons that there are some blood diseases, including some cases of malignant blood diseases repeated exposure to chemicals at work

5 blood diseases leading to leukemia

There are diseases of non- malignant blood can have after years turn out to diseases of blood malignancy, such as plastic anemia and disease breaks the red blood cells Night sudden There is also the sickest blood malignant chronic turn into leukemia sharply after years such as the proliferation of blood cells, the real and cirrhosis of the bone marrow and chronic leukemia either myeloid or lymphoid.

6 Viruses

There viruses cause tumors such as hepatitis C virus type b or EBV virus that causes tumors nasopharynx, have found that this virus is closely related tumors nodes of type (Burkitt) that appears in the areas in Africa, as well as tumors nodes that appear after organ transplant or in patients with AIDS, as well as a virus abbreviated named HTLV-1 causes malignant blood disease abbreviated name ATLL and the virus has spread its presence in the regions of West Africa and the Caribbean and some parts of Japan.

Types of leukemia

leukemia are divided into four main types : acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There are other types rare fall within one of four types mentioned although it has the characteristics of them. The first two types called acute leukemia because at times that there was no treatment available for this disease was expected duration of patient survival period of months, while the survival of the patient can be expected in the other two species for years even if it did not receive any treatment.

The truth is that these diseases are four different types independent of one another and different treatment and different response to treatment, therefore the chances of recovery are different from them.

It combines these diseases originate in the bone marrow and cause the occupation of the area into the bone marrow makes normal cells can not find enough space for breeding to produce blood components of red blood cells or platelets or white.

Therefore, all characterized as causing anemia or weakness cells neutral and therefore weakness in the immune or weakness of the production of platelets and thus the tendency to bleeding, although these symptoms vary from one disease to another.

Below we will try to discuss these diseases one by one.

Acute myeloid leukemia :

Frequently this disease in adults and in children at least in this disease primitive cells proliferate (Primitive) cell-like mother fills up most of the bone marrow (Figure 1) so as not to remain only a limited area of normal cells, spoke symptoms of so-called failure of the bone marrow.

Symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia :

The symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia is usually not specific to this disease alone, for example, the patient feels general weakness, dizziness and fatigue and shortness of breath on exertion and palpitation of the heart was inclined to bleeding from the gums or nose was showing the effects of bleeding under the skin in the form of a rash in the legs or patches blood in various parts of the body temperature rises have had the presence of a bacterial infection in the place of the body or public in the blood, and this is called the symptoms of bone marrow failure because the weakness caused by the production of red blood cells, white and platelets.

The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia :

The treatment of this disease through intensive chemotherapy, which lasts for 5 to 10 days using 2 to 3 drugs, mostly involving drug Cytarabine one in a group of drugs such as drug Anthracycline Daunorubicine.

Unfortunately, all drugs that affect this disease attacking the normal cells of the bone marrow, such as attacking the cells of the disease malignant therefore increases the symptoms of bone marrow failure for a temporary period goes three to four weeks after the treatment period mentioned and then restores the bone marrow recovers and returns normal blood cells to multiply and grow and come back production blood and symptoms disappear bone marrow failure mentioned.

As well as patient needs a blood transfusion (red blood cells) and the transfer of platelets, and where the patient needs to be repeated blood transfusions and platelets usually, so it is used in such cases, so-called formulations blood filtered to prevent the transfer of white blood cells to the patient as these leukocytes cause formation of antibodies against tissue characteristics (HLA-), which could lead to the breaking down of blood platelets, which will be moved Antigens in the future and other immune problems.

After the stage of intensive treatment of this and the subsequent period of weak blood cells, which must be overcome in the fight against bacterial diseases of infectious and transfer of red blood cells and the transfer of blood platelets, restores bone marrow recovers and starts in the production of normal blood cells do not find any trace of the malignant cells in the case of a response for treatment,

Until recently, all patients with acute myeloid leukemia are advised to perform a transplant of bone marrow, but today we know that there is a group of patients who have the possibility of the return of the disease to them exist but are so small that it does not justify making the process of bone marrow transplant, at least currently, because the process of cultivation bone marrow itself to take the risk is considerable.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia :

This is the first malignant disease in children, but of course there are many adults who are infected with the disease as well. This disease is more responsive to treatment and the possibility of full recovery from the largest of acute myeloid leukemia.

Symptoms of acute lymphoblastic leukemia :

Not unlike the symptoms of acute lymphoblastic leukemia symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia previously mentioned, but it is considered an accurate diagnosis and distinguish each disease from the others is necessary, because the treatment of diseases different from one another, in addition to the difference in the chances of response to treatment, and the need to transplant bone marrow.

Diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia :

Generated suspicion of the existence of the disease by analyzing the number of blood cells and examine a slice of blood under the microscope, such as acute myeloid leukemia completely (Figure 2), and then being made of bone marrow to confirm the diagnosis, and then conduct tests for the distinction between acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloid leukemia sharp. These tests include tests for the chemical to the cells, and tests of these features of immune cells, and tests chromosomes of these cells.

Image layers of tissue to the lymph nodes in AIDS lymphoma is Agdjokin

The treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia :

Due to the availability of drugs chemical has good efficacy on the cells of the disease without affecting too much on normal cells, different treatment of this disease for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, is used in the treatment of this disease drugs lead to access to the disappearance of the disease without increasing severity symptoms of bone marrow failure. But when the sufficiency of such medications that do not affect normal cells quickly return the disease within a short period and then add drugs of the type used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and that you get some symptoms of bone marrow failure as a result of decline in normal cells, although this decline, and these symptoms are less severe what is happening in acute myeloid leukemia, is generally the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia by deliberate tables are divided into stages include :

1 intensive treatment

2 protect the central nervous system

3 early focus, or re- intensive therapy

4 to maintain the results of treatment

In some stages of this treatment weakens the ability of bone marrow to produce normal cells but can reduce the dose of certain medications or postponing some stages of treatment detailed even a chance to leave the bone marrow in order to recover and then start therapy again. Generally be double the production of normal cells is less than occurs during the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, but you can get the same complications, though to a lesser degree, and then there is a need for antibiotics and the need for blood transfusions and platelets as happens in cases of acute myeloid leukemia.

There Variqan other important between acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the first is that the disease latter is sometimes in certain places can not be the drug that is given intravenously to reach these places to eliminate the disease and hiding places This is the central nervous system (IE brain and spinal cord) and in the testes of male children. Therefore it is necessary to give preventative treatment to eradicate the disease in these places, otherwise the disease back from these places.

The second difference is that the so-called treatment -Hafez, who is a drug chemical given by mouth daily or weekly (and sometimes drugs or monthly intervals intravenously or in the area of ​​the spinal cord) , this treatment Hafiz has led to a decline in the return of the disease after his disappearance, while All studies were performed using Hafiz therapy in acute myeloid leukemia did not lead to any additional benefit.

For the cultivation of bone marrow in cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, used this method therapeutic in very limited cases in children because the results that can be obtained without the cultivation of good compared to cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, whereas in adults used this method therapeutic in a greater proportion of children, However, it remains less than the rate of acute myeloid leukemia.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia :

The disease is characterized that we know clearly imbalance chromosomal the only one that leads to the emergence of this disease, which is the exchange of two pieces of each of the chromosome 22.9, leading to the emergence of chromosome called the Philadelphia chromosome leads to loss of cells characteristic of apoptosis and thus to a proliferation of white blood cells infinitely with no loss of property excellence, therefore, these cells appear normal form albeit in very large numbers in the bone marrow as well as in the blood as a result of the collapse of the barrier between the bone marrow and the blood.

However, as mentioned previously there are a limited area of the bone marrow and that the proliferation of white blood cells severe leading to poor production of red blood cells and in most cases gets there an increase in the platelet producing cells have also gets in this disease emergence production of blood outside the bone marrow, usually in the spleen and liver failure and liver function at least partially. The proliferation of these cells leads to significantly body's energy consumption in the production of these cells and lead to an increase in the so-called feces' metabolism, causing some symptoms of the disease.

Symptoms of chronic myeloid leukemia :

Some patients may have no symptoms for a long time, and discover they have the disease by chance when an analysis of the blood, we find a proliferation of white blood cells, and when you perform further tests to get this diagnosis. There are other patients there have some mild symptoms such as symptoms of anemia (weakness, fatigue, headache, palpitation of the heart, shortness of breath upon exertion) There have symptoms due to an enlarged spleen or liver, leading to poor digestion and a feeling of fullness when eating a small amount of food. Some other patients appear to have tumors in various organs of the body as a result of the production of bone marrow outside the natural places.

Diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia :

Given pathological picture above with a proliferation in the number of white blood cells and neutral forming cells have strong suspicions that the existence of the disease. Be sure of the diagnosis examinations chemical cells, and chromosomal tests to detect the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is certainly the diagnosis.

Image histologic bone cancer

Treat chronic myeloid leukemia :

Can control the symptoms of this disease and to produce cells Almtcather by drugs, chemicals given by mouth as easily as the drug hydroxyurea Hydroxyurea but gets the disease after a period lasts an average of 3 to 5 years is transmitted to the process of the most virulent resembles acute leukemia and be less responsive for the treatment of acute leukemia, who are not preceded by chronic leukemia and medulloblastoma when it is difficult to control this disease usually leads to death.

During the eighties of the twentieth century, it was discovered that giving the injection Antervron under the skin in sufficient doses happens disappearance of the Philadelphia chromosome that causes the disease, raising great hopes to get rid of this disease once and for all is possible, then at about the same time, studies have shown that a transplant of bone marrow in the early stages the disease also occurs disappearance of the disease once and for all, and the disappearance of the chromosome that causes the disease, which is called Pkromuzum Philadelphia and the difference is that giving drugs Antervron period lengthened several years followed by a return of the disease in most cases after stopping this treatment, though some patients remain free of the disease almost always while patients who underwent bone marrow transplant rid of this disease permanently.

It remains to say that during the year 2000 2001 was the announcement of the discovery of a new drug is given by mouth latest jolt in the media and the public when it became talking about getting rid of this disease once and without the need for bone marrow transplantation, and this property is a drug given by the mouth is called Gelevk Gleevec, and this property is a drug inhibits the enzyme active resulting from the Philadelphia chromosome, but it is too early to say that this property actually eliminates the disease permanently because the tests molecular DNA in cases of patients who responded to treatment and those who disappeared have the manifestations of the disease and disappeared chromosome causes of the disease called Philadelphia chromosome showed that disruption of gene still exists in most cases, but that as a result of the success of this therapy significantly eliminate the imbalance molecular disease represented in the enzyme active resulting from the Philadelphia chromosome, we can say that this property has led to the postponement of the decision-making cultivation of the spinal skeleton with a lot of doctors and patients alike around the world, but we are too early to say that the cultivation of bone marrow has become indispensable in the final of this disease.

A picture of a chronic bone cancer

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia :

The disease is a type of lymphoma, which is a low degree of malice and differ from lymphoma that cells Almtsrtna in this disease originate in the bone marrow and that they lose the items with which bone marrow and thus move from the bone marrow into the circulation appears in the blood and the fact that this disease can live with for a human goes from 5 to 15 years with health problems require treatment only in the last years of the disease. Given that the disease usually appears in older later session, we can say that a lot of patients living with the disease to the end of the age without causing them serious health problems, however, the disease in some cases, young people below forty and when it should be considered a disease constitutes a risk to the injured person, mostly because they hope for themselves the health and wellness (in obedience to God) until an advanced age where they can perform their duty to the family that they see their sons and daughters have stabilized their life.

Illustration of the lymph cells in Hodgkin 's disease

Symptoms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia :

Sometimes the patient does not complain of any symptoms of the disease, but discovers he has an offer when a blood test for other reasons not related to the disease. In some cases, the patient complains of the appearance of lymph node in the neck, under the armpits or in other places, and when the doctor and being Aaaineh him some lab tests detect the presence of this disease. Sometimes the disease causes enlargement of the spleen with its accompanying symptoms of fullness of the upper abdomen, especially after eating and the presence of pain resulting from an enlarged spleen as well as the cause of the disease in some cases, anemia or a decrease in blood platelets and the pointer to the transmission of the disease to advanced stages or cause weakness in the immune disease with frequent bacterial infections as a result of the predominance of cells Almtsrtna on lymphocyte normal.

Acute myeloid leukemia

Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia :

As we mentioned earlier in spite of evidence of the diagnosis of the disease in some patients, we do not go to treatment immediately if the patient is suffering from the disease in the early stages, because of all the remedies currently available has not been proven that it was investigating any benefit to the patient if used in the early stages, therefore only disease surveillance periodically until you get complications as a result of the disease is being intervene therapeutically when to address complications such as high inflation of the lymph nodes, especially if the cause of pressure on the arteries or veins or members of other sensitive, or inflation in the spleen or liver, or anemia resulting from the invasion of the bone marrow cells Almtsrtna, or low blood platelets as a result of the invasion of the bone marrow cells also Almtsrtna.